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5. Energy


India is the fourth largest consumer of energy in the world after USA, China and Russia but it is not endowed with abundant energy resources. Efficient and reliable energy supply is critical for economic growth. The availability of conventional energy sources is limited and may not be sufficient in the long run to sustain the process of economic development. With the increasing share of fossil fuels in the energy supply/use, the share of imported energy may go up further. The challenge is to ensure adequate supply of energy at the least possible cost.

India’s power sector has seen extreme changes in the last decades. A slew of policies and regulations followed the Electricity Act of 2003 to facilitate an accelerated growth in the sector. The process started with the restructuring of power distribution utilities, with some states corporatizing the functional entities for power generation, transmission and distribution. The states of Orissa and Delhi went a step further by privatising the distribution sector. Another important aspect is to provide clean and convenient "lifeline" energy, critical for the well-being of deprived. Similarly requirement of coal, the dominant fuel in India’s energy mix will also need to be expand. Meeting the energy challenge is of fundamental importance to India’s economic growth imperatives and its efforts to raise its level of human development.

Overview of the sector from the 12th Plan

Sector Chapter from the Plan

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Focus Areas

1. Increasing Supply Side Potential by Augmenting Generation Capacity

To bridge the gap between peak demand/deficit, and faster retirement of the old inefficient power plants, the target for the Twelfth Plan has been fixed at 1,18,536.6 MW.  Additionally, alternative sources of energy are exploring to meet supply/demand of energy.

Description of Dataset/Resource



Estimated Demand for Petroleum Products in 12th Plan (2012-17) Refer Table X.13
Installed capacity at the end of 11th Plan Sector Chapter from the Plan  Refer Table No. 14.8
Proposed addition in 12th Plan Sector Chapter from the Plan Refer Table No. 14.16
Projection of Crude Oil Production in the Twelfth Plan, source of Petroleum Products Sector Chapter from the Plan Refer Table No. 14.36
Coal reserves and demand/production data Sector Chapter from the Plan Refer Table No. 14.24, 14.27 and 14.28
Petroleum products demand Sector Chapter from the Plan Refer Table No. 14.35
Natural Gas Demand/production Sector Chapter from the Plan Refer Table No. 14.37 and 14.38
Indicators on share of renewable in electricity generated (which indicate that this is expected to raise from around 6 per cent in 2012 to 9 per cent in 2017 and 16 per cent in 2030). Sector Chapter from the Plan Refer Table No. 14.17
Indicators on development of hydroelectric potential Sector Chapter from the Plan Refer Table No. 14.18
National biomass cooking initiative  
Evaluation study on programme for grid connected biomass power, bagasse cogeneration, and non-bagasse  cogeneration industries  
Biomass power cogeneration scheme (MNRE)  
Off-grid biogas Central Financial Assistance  
Assessment of achievable potential of new and renewable energy resources in different states during 12th Plan period and determination of RPO trajectory and its impact on tariff; Forum of Regulators; March 2012
Integrating variable renewable energy with GRID: lesson from the southern region integrating variable renewable energy with the GRID

2. Expansion of Transmission System and Capacity

The large expansion in production and consumption of electricity has to be supported by a significant expansion and strengthening of the transmission network. The transmission programme to be taken up during the Twelfth Plan period is as follows:

Description of Dataset/Resource Source


Inter-Regional Flow of Power at the End of Twelfth Plan Period Sector Chapter from the Plan Refer Table No. 14.21
Establishment of National Grid  
News Paper article on National Grid  

3. Strengthening Distribution Systems

It plays a crucial role in the overall functioning of the power sector because it is the part of the system, which generates the revenues needed to pay generation and transmission utilities. The viability of the power sector as a whole is therefore critically dependent on the health of the distribution sector. This sector has developed high aggregate technical and commercial (AT and C) losses, which needs to be down from the current level of losses.

To address the problems of distribution losses, the Central Government had launched the scheme to finance the modernization of sub-transmission and distribution networks with the objective to reduce AT and C losses to 15 per cent, therefore Govt. of India has proposed Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reform Programme (R-APDRP) as a Central Sector Scheme. The focus of the programme shall be on actual, demonstrable performance in terms of sustained loss reduction. Establishment of reliable and automated systems for sustained collection of accurate base line data, and the adoption of Information Technology in the areas of energy accounting will be essential before taking up the regular distribution strengthening projects.

Description of Dataset/Resource Source
Details about RAPDRP and The details of the cash loss reduction and incentives released to various states under APDRP
Baseline AT and C Loss prepared under APDRP
List of Towns as per Census 2001 Eligible under RAPDRP

4. Improving Access to Energy

Government of India had launched Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) as one of its flagship programme in March 2005 with the objective of electrifying over one lakh un-electrified villages and to provide free electricity connections to 2.34 Crore rural BPL households. This programme has been brought under the ambit of Bharat Nirman. For rural areas, electricity distribution infrastructure is envisaged to establish Rural Electricity Distribution Backbone (REDB) with at least a 33/11KV sub-station in a block, Village Electrification Infrastructure (VEI) with at least a Distribution Transformer in a village or hamlet, and standalone grids with generation where grid supply is not feasible.

The scheme provides a subsidy of 90 per cent of the total project cost and balance 10 per cent of the project cost is provided by the Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) as loan. Initially, Phase I of the RGGVY scheme was approved for implementation during the the Tenth Plan period. Subsequently, the scheme was approved to be continued in the Eleventh Plan.

Description of Dataset/Resource Source
State-wise original and revised coverage of villages and BPL households
State-wise Implementing agency-wise coverage and Achievement of projects under Phase I
Progress of Franchisee Deployment
Details of projects sanctioned in X Plan and XI Plan under RGGVY

5. Development of Renewable Energy for Energy Security and Sustainable Development

Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) is a major initiative of the Government of India and State Governments to promote ecologically sustainable growth while addressing India’s energy security challenges. The immediate aim of the Mission is to focus on setting up an enabling environment for solar technology penetration in the country both at a centralized and decentralized level. JNNSM aims to create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022. The states have setup their own benchmarks for solar power. For example, in Tamil Nadu, 1 lac street lights in village panchayats are targeted over a period of 5 yrs upto 2016. Tamil Nadu solar energy policy 2012 has been announced which envisages, establishment of 3000 MW of solar generation by 2015.

Description of Dataset/Resource


Commissioning Status of Solar PV Projects under Batch II, Phase I of JNNSM

Guidelines for channel partners (RESCO)

Solar home lighting systems

Solar cities