2nd Five Year Plan
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Chapter 14:

Introduction AT present only a fraction of the Contribution which animal husbandry and dairying can make to the growth of the rural economy and to a rise in living standards is being realised. In ths Second Five Year Plan provision has been made for an outlay of over Rs. 56 crores on animal husbandry, including dairying, and it is expected that during the coming years greater progress will be made in this branch of agriculture than has been possible hitherto. The-object of animal husbandry programmes is to increase the supply of milk, meat and eggs, a greater consumption of which is very essential in. order to balance the present customary diets, and to provide efficient bullock power for agricultural operations in every part of the country. The quality of the cattle is thus of critical importance to the rural economy. There are also certain animal products such as wool, hair, hides and skins;etc., the efficient utilisation of which as industrial raw materials has a growing economic significance. Animal husbandry programmes, however, continue to encounter serious practical difficulties. Before solutions for them can be found, it is necessary that the size and the nature of the problem and its essential features should be widely understood.

2. According to the livestock census of 1951 the numbers of cattle in India were as follows:—

(in millions)

Breeding cows 4634
Breeding bulls 0.65
Work stock:  
Male 58.41
Female 231
Young stock 43.49
Others 3.89
total 155.09
Breedi'lg buffaloes 20.99
Breeding bulls 031

Work stock:

Male 6.01
Female 0.53
Young stock 14.73
Others 0.78
total 4335

Despite this large population, in 1950-51 the net value of live-stock products amounted only to Rs. 664 crores or about 16 per cent of the income from agriculture. Studies indicate that the present cattt» population is considerably in excess of the available supplies of fodder. It is commonly considered that in relation to the supplies of dry fodder at least one-third of the cattle population may be regarded as surplus and lhat in relation to the supplies of green fodder and concentrates the position is still worse. Owing to the increase in the requirements of food for the human population, areas, where grazing was possible, have steadily diminished. Large numbers lead to poor feeding and poor feeding comes in the way of attempts to raise productivity. There is thus a vicious circle which it is difficult to break.

3. Apart from by-products of agricultural crops, grazing areas have hitherto been the -main-stay ofcat-tfe. Catti"; raising has now to undergo a basic change, in that its future will lie more on a mixed farming system. Most of the fodder will have to be grown progressively on the holdings of the farmers. This aspect has to be kept in view in evolving suitable patterns for the reorganisation of agriculture.

4. Famines and epidemics having been largely brought under control, there is a tendency for the number of surplus cattle to increase even in the ordinary course and this trend will become more marked owing to action taken in recent years to place a total ban on the slaughter of cattle. Proposals for bans on the slaughter of cattle derive from a widely prevalent sentiment which has found expression in the Constitution and must inevitably also enter into national plan-mog. Article 48 of the Constitution prescribes that the States shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modem and scientific lines and shall; in particular, take steps for preserving and improving the breeds, and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle. But in giving effect to this Directive Principle care has to be taken to see that conditions are not created which may defeat the very objective which the Constitution seeks to achieve.

5. An expert committee on the prevention of Slaughter of cattle was appointed by the Government of India in 1954 to suggest measures to arrest the deterioration of cattle. The committee came to the conclusion that the present fodder and other resources of the country are grossly inadequate even for maintaining the existing cattle population. A complete ban on the slaughter of all cattle would tend to increase their number furthci* and to jeopardise the well-being oflhe limited number of good cattle which the country possesses. It might also result in rapid increasi- in the numbers of wild cattle. The committee estimated that if slaughter of cattle wer" totally banned, the cattle population would increase at the rate of nearly six per cent" per annum. Such trends were noted in 1953 in Uttar Prsdesh by the Gosamverdhan Enquiry Com-alitiee which estimated that fodde;- and cattle feeding resources available in the State were sufficient only for about 58 per cent of the cattle population and that stray and wild animals were already causing damage to crops in several districts.

6. At the beginning of the first Hve year plan it was felt that gosadans might offer a possible solution of the problem. Accordingly, the plan provided for the establishment in the first phase of 160 gosadans to serve a cattle population of 320,000. The scheme did not make satisfactory progress. Altogether, about 22 gosadans for 8,000 cattle have been established and many of these have found it difficult to secure the areas of land needed for their operations. During the second plan it is proposed to set up 60 gosadans for about 30,000 cattle. It is ob vious that even if it were a question only of establishing gosadans. for the care of unserviceable and unproductive cattle, it would be impossible to establish enough of them. The conclusion, therefore, is that in defining the scope of bans on the slaughter of cattle States should take a realistic view of the fodder resources available and the extent to which they can get the cooperation of voluntary organisations to bear the main responsibility for main-taixn'ig unserweabie and' unproductive cattle with a measure of assistance fwr, the Government and general support .

7. During the second five year plan it is.proposed to select 350 goshalas, out of a total number of 3,000, as centres 10 be developed for livestock improvement. These goshalas will send their unserviceable and unproductive cattle to the nearest gosadans. Each gosadan will have facilities for the better utilisation of hides, bones and other products. The proper utilisation of the products of dead animals has considerable economic significance and the All-India Khadi and Village Industries Board has a number of programmes in this field. Each Goshala will be provided by Government with a certain number of animals of improved breed and will be required to secure an equal number from its own resources. Financial assistance will also be given. About Rs. 1 crore have been provided for the scheme.

Cattle Breeding Policy And Programmes

8. There are as many as 25 well-defined breeds of cattle and six well-defined breeds of buffaloes in India. These are distributed in different parts of the country. High class specimens in each breed are limited in number and are found in the interior of the home of each breed. Around this home there are animals of the same type but of poorer quality. A few of these breeds are of tlie dairy type in which the females yield a large quantity of milk, while the males are poor for work. A large majority of the breeds are of the draught type; the cows are poor milkers but the bullocks are of high quality. In between, there are a number of breeds which may be called "dual-purpose" in the sense that the females yield more, than an average quantity of milk, while the males are good working bullocks. These well-defined breeds are found in the dry parts of the country. Outside these areas, over large parts of the country in the east and the south of India where rainfall is very heavy, the cattle are non-descript and do not belong to any definite breed.

9. In order that best results may be obtained, an all-India breeding policy has been drawn up by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and accepted by the Central and State Governments. This policy is briefly as under:

  1. In the case of well-defined milch breeds the milking capacity should be developed to the maximum by selective breeding and the male progeny should be used for the development of the nondescript cattle.
  2. In the case of well-defined draught breeds, the objective is to put as much milk in them as possible without materially impairing their quality for work.

Thus, the breeding policy is generally designed to increase the production of milk in the country without affecting the position in regard to the supply of bullocks required for cuitivation. In every draught breed there is always a small number which give more than an average quantity of milk. By selecting bulls from this group the milk production of the population can then be progressively increased by further selection and breeding. When this is done in the interior of the breeding tracts, the bulls produced can be used in the outer areas in order that general improvement may be brought about in the entire population.

10. For the implementation of this policy each State has been divided into zones according to the breeds used in them. Thus, in the districts of Ahmedabad, Kaira, Broach and Surat. the breed that will be used is 'Kankrej'. In the western tracts of U.P. like Saharan-pur, Muzaffamagar, Aligarh, Mathura, etc., the breed that will be used is 'Hariana'. In the hilly tracts such as Dehra Dun, Garhwal, Almora and parts ofNainital, where the cattle are non-descript, Sindhi hulls will be used.

11. It is mainly through the key village scheme that the programme of livestock improvement is being pursued by State Governments. This scheme provides tor concentrated work in selected areas. • It envisages castration of scrub bulls, breeding operations controlled by artificial insemination centres (each of which is intended to serve about 5,000 cows of breeding age), rearing of calves on a subsidised basis, development of fodder resources and the marketing of animal husbandry products organised on co-operative lines. During the first five year plan 600 key villages and 150 artificial insemination centres have been established. During the second plan 1258 key villages, 245 artificial insemination centres and 254 extension centres are to be set up. The programme is inteaded to produce about 22,000 improved stud bulls, 950,000 improved bullocks and a million improved cows. The scheme has made encouraging progress, but in respect of fodder development and the marketing of animal husbandry products not much headway has been made. On the other hand, controlled breeding has found a large measure of acceptance and States have enacted the necessary legislation for implementing the scheme. In the early stages work in many key villages and artificial insemination centres was delayed for want of equipment and shortage of staff, but everywhere the local people have been willing to provide rent-free buildings and contribute in other ways to make the scheme a success. During the second plan a great deal of attention must be given to the fodder programme as this is an essential basis for the programme of cattle development. In each area efforts should be made to develop the limited pasture lands which are available. With the large programme envisaged in the second plan a high degree of urgency atlaches-to ihe provision of adequate staff, to better administrative planning of supplies and to public education in matters affecting animal husbandry development.

Dairying And Milk Supply

12. Milk statistics in India are yet in the nature of broad estimates. It is reckoned that the total milk output of the country at the beginning of the first five year plan was over 18 million tons. Of this, about 38 per cent is estimated as being used for consumption as fluid milk, about 42 per cent. for ghee and the rest for khoa, butter, curd and other products. Cows provide a little less than half and buffaloes a little more than half the total supply of milk. The average per capita consumption is estimated to be over 5 ozs. compared to about 15 ozs. which is recommended as the minimum quantity for balanced nutrition. Thus, an appreciable increase in the supply of milk is an imperative necessity. At this stage of development targets for the production of milk have to be drawn up on a regional basis with reference specially to the supply of milk for u rb an areas. So far a national production target for milk has not yet been formulated. It is proposed that local and regional targets should be set up in national extension and community projects and in other areas so that over the next five year period in these areas an increase of about 10 per cent in the total output of milk can be achieved. The general objective should be to achieve an increase of about 30 to 40 per cent in milk output over a period of 10 to 12 years in intensively worked areas.

13. The average production ol milk of the better Indian breeds of cows and buffaloes is about 1500 Ibs. per lactation, while the general average may not bs much more than one-half of this amount. These Rgurcs are to be compared with the average production per lactation in western countries which ranges from 3000 to 4000 Ibs. Where systematic breeding and management have been provided, as in well-organised dairy farms, even higher average figures have been obtained in India, but the number of cows and buf-faioes involved is extremely small. Under suitable conditions the cow can produce as much milk as the buffs'.; In order to encourage the breeding of high Ts.USi viaMing animals, a scheme for the establishment of pedigree breeding stations will be operated in the Second Plan. This would help demonstrate to the 'fan-aer the benefit of using progeny tested sires for high milk production at a reduced cost. A factor which has injured milk production in the past is the trade in high.quality milch cattle between well-known breeding areas and large cities like Bombay and Calcutta wh

14. In recent years the supply of milk to urban areas has become an urgent problem for several reasons. Mushroom dairies set up in urban areas under unhygienic conditions are a danger to public health. Much of the milk sold in towns is adulterated and of poor quality. It is important to devise arrangements which will ensure the supply of adequate quantities of milk to urban areas (a) under conditions in which quality is guaranteed, and (b) at prices which are remunerative to the milk producer and fair to the consumer. With these objects in view, during the second five the year plan, it is proposed to organize 36 urban supply schemes, 12 co-operative creameries and 7 milk drying plants. The latter will be located in rural areas and will produce butter, ghee and skimmed milk powder. The general policy is that milk producers' co-operatives should be organised in villages to supply milk to the urban milk supply schemes, creameries and milk drying plants. The milk producers should be given assistance such as the payment of a remunerative price, the provision of bulls or artificial insemination, technical advice, facilities for improving production and storage of fodder and the provision of milking sheds. Milk collected from rural areas is to be distributed in urban areas under the control of appropriate authorities such as Milk Boards. In Bombay a large milk colony has been organised at Aarey and for Calcutta a similar colony is being established at Haringhatta. In these cities there were large concentrations of cattle which had to be removed out of the town. There was thus no alternative to the setting up of milk colonies. Large scale milk schemes are also proposed to be taken up in Delhi and Madras with the minimum size of cattle colonies in relation to their needs. Even where milk colonies are set up, they should be supplemented as in Bombay, by organised wpply of milk from rural areas to the maximum extent possible. It is also proposed to promote the distribution of toned milk as a source of cheap supply in urban areas. Some of the existing dairies will also be expanded for handling larger supplies. The main problems in arranging for supplies of milk from rural areas are organisational and the programmes set out in the plans of States are to be regarded as the minimum to be achieved. There is no reason why, as these programmes begin to be carried out, similar programmes should not be worked out for other areas, especially where the necessary extension staff are available to take up the task of field organisation.

Control of Diseases

15. In the past rinderpest and other contagious diseases of cattle have I;)fe;ri ? heavy toll, rinderpest alone accounting for aboat '" of the cattle mortality. A pilot scheme undertaken during the first five year plan has made it possible to draw up a programme aiming at the eradication of rinderpest over the bulk of the country during the second plan. The plans of States also provide for measures to control other contagious diseases and pests, specially Foot and Mouth disease, Haemorrhagic Septicaemia, Black quarter and Anthrax. During the first five year plan the number of veterinary dispensaries was increased from 2,000 to 2,650. In the course of the second plan 1900 veterinary dispensaries are expected to be added and these are to include 145 mobile dispensaries.

Sheep And Goats

16. It is estimated that there are about 38 million sheep in India producing 60 million pounds of wool per annum. About 24 million pounds of the indigenous raw wool is utilised in the country and the balance is exported. Finer varieties of wool are imported to the extent of about 11 million pounds per annum. The average yield of wool from indigenous sheep is estimated to be about 2 pounds per head. Improved varieties of sheep can yield about 6 pounds, so that there is considerable scope for development. The demand for wool comes from five main sources, namely, from cottage industries, for carpets and floor rugs, for blankets, for the manufacture of clothing material and knitting yams in mills and for other industries like the manufacture of shawls, tweeds, etc. Imported wool is used mainly by mills.

17. Over many years studies have been undertaken in the cross-breeding of local types with the Merino sheep in Kashmir, Mysore and the Deccan, in the selective breeding of Bikaneri, Deccani and Bellary types and in the grading up of local inferior sheep with the Bikaneri. These have 1"d to the adoption of a long-term approach which includes (a) selective breeding of indigenous breeds in the plains and where define breeds exist, (b) upgrading of non-descript breeds with Bikaneri, and (c) cross-breeding with foreign breeds in selected hilly areas. Cross-breeding with Merino sheep has given valuable results both in respect of the quantity and the quality of wool produced. Encouraging results have also been obtained from selective breeding and from grading up local inferior sheep. As against the average yield of the Kashmiri breed of 16 ozs. of fleece, the yield of the half-bred variety is about 37 ozs. and in certain cases as much as 56 ozs. There is thus considerable scope for improving the present yields of wool.

18. During the second five year plan it is proposed to establish three new sheep breeding farms. These will be in Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat and Saurashtra. The farms are intended to produce rams of good quality, both for pure breeding and for cross-breeding. At each farm a fleece testing laboratory and a wool utilisation centre will be set up. It is also proposed to establish 396 sheep and wool extension centres in different regions. The plan provides Rs. 1.5 crores for sheep and wool development In many parts of the country, where scarcity conditions supervene from time to time, sheep farming'is an industry which can do much to sustain the rural economy.

19. The goat is often described as the "poor man's cow", although only a fifth of the goat population of about 47 million is used for milk production. The average yield is extremely low, but selected breeds have an average of about 400 pounds milk per lactation of 150 days. The goat has been a major factor in causing erosion and if it is to have a significant part in the agricultural economy, goatbreeding should be carried on under arable conditions. Closer studies of the economics of meat production under stall-fed conditions and of the special diseases of the goat are also needed.


20. The value of poultry as a subsidiary industry has long been recognised, but poultry development has taken place at a relatively slow rate. The average indigenous hen produces about 50 eggs per year in this country, as against 120 in many other countries. A factor in poultry development is the loss which the poultry breeder frequently suffers from the out-breaks of diseases such as Ranikhet, Fowl-ox and Spirochae-tosis. Predatory animals and birds also take a large toll of village poultry. A proportion of the eggs produced during the hot weather are lost on account of the lack of proper preservation including cold storage.

21. During the second five year plan it is proposed to set up four regional farms, each with 2000 laying hens for acclimatising exotic breeds and from which foundation stocks will be distributed to 300 extension centres. Each extension centre is to comprise a demonstration unit with a development block attached to it. It is proposed to provide training to private poultry.breeders in modem methods of poultry rearing on each of these demonstration units. A defertiliza-tion unit is also to be attached to each extension centre for processing village eggs in order to prolong their keeping qualities, especially during the summer months. In national extension and community project areas vaccination of poultry against various diseases is already being undertaken on an increasing scale. Experiments have shown that White Leghorns and Rhode Island Reds are the most useful breeds for crossing or upgrading the indigenous stock. It is considered that with the measures which are being planned it should be possible to increase the production of upgraded indigenous hens by about 50 percent. There is considerable room for the development of poultry as a subsidiary industry in every village in the country, provided improved stocks are made available in adequate numbers, elementary guidance is freely extended and satisfactory marketing and other facilities are organised. By the end of the second plan the per capita availability of eggs per annum would be raised from four to twenty.

Research And Education

22. The contribution which livestock can make to public health and to the economy of the country can be greatly increased by improvements brought about through judicious breeding, proper feeding, adequate protection agaist losses from diseases and other causes and improvement in the general conditions of husbandry and management Programmes for development have to be based on extensive scientific research. During the first' five year plan, apart from research schemes sponsored by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, veterinary research and animal husbandry in general did not receive sufficient attention. The second five year plan, however, provides for much larger programmes for the development of animal husbandry and the expansion of research facilities. Animal husbandry research has to be organised at three levels, namely, national, regional and State. At the national level Central institutes like the Indian Veterinary Research Institute and the National Dairy Research Institute will be mainly responsible for fundamental work on problems of all-India importance, development and standardisation of new techniques (including biological products), institution of specialised post-graduate courses, etc. Under the second five year plan these institutes will be strengthened and expanded. At the Indian Veterinary Research Institute the existing research divisions for animal genetics, poultry, animal nutrition, pathology, bacteriology, parasitology and biological products are being given larger staff and equipmeit and a biological products standardisation division is also being added for regulating and controlling the quality and use of vaccines and sera prepared at different centres. The National Dairy Research Institute which has been established at Kar-nal and takes the place of the Indian Dairy Research Institute at Bangalore will have separate divisions for research in dairy husbandry, nutrition, chemistry, bacteriology, technology and machinery, besides a division for dairy extension work and a dairy science college. A regional station of the Institute is being maintained at Bangalore for the purpose of training students in junior courses in dairying and for research.

23. Animal husbandry conditions vary considerably in different parts of the country and there are many research problems which are of importance to particular regions and are best studied in regional institutions. The Government of India, therefore, propose ,to develop four research institutes, one in each of the four regions in which the country has been divided for animal husbandry research and development, namely, temperate (Himalayan), dry (northern), eastern and southern regions. A beginning in this direction was made in the first five year plan by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research which undertook to finance the establishment of four regional stations for research in animal nutrition problems. During the first plan special staff was also appointed for carrying out research in infertility in cattle and for training veterinary college students in animal gynaecology and obstetrics and the allied subjects of artificial insemination and physiology and pathology of reproduction. During the second plan further additions will be made to the staff.

24. In most States nucleus centres for veterinary research have already come into existence—thanks to the work of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, and State Governments have also provided in their plans for the further strengthening of their existing organisations. It is important that the results of research carried out at the Central and regional institutes should be applied and adapted to local conditions. Work at research stations in the States is likely, however, to come up against shortage of adequately trained and experienced personnel.

25. Programmes for key villages in national extension and other areas, rinderpest eradication and urban and rural milk supply schemes which have been drawn up for the second five year plan require altogether about 5000 veterinary graduates as against 2750 likely to become available from existing institutions." The shortage of trained veterinary personnel was already anticipated two years ago and certain steps were taken. Double shifts were introduced in five veterinary colleges at Hiisar, Hyderabad, Patna, Bombay and Bikaner and four new colleges were set up in Madhya Bharat, Orissa, Andhra and Travancore-Cochin. Existing veterinary colleges are also being assisted in increasing their admissions and improving their training facilities. A post-graduate veterinary college is being set up at Izatnagar at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute. Sines the veterinary degree course extends over four years, to meet shortages in the intervening period an emergency course of two years' duration has been started at ten centres, each admitting about 100 students. Trainees from these centres will as an emergency measure supplement supply from veterinary colleges. State Governments are taking- steps to meet the requirements of stockmen and other subordinate personnel like compounders and dressers. In a number of States special training courses in subjects such as artificial insemination, poultry husbandry and flaying and utilisation of carcasses have been instituted. The Government of India also propose to institute a course of training in the husbandry and diseases of pigs.

26. To provide about 1000 personnel for dairying it is proposed to set up a dairy science college at Kamal along with the National Dairy Research Institute. At present training facilities in dairy science do not go beyond the diploma level. A number of specialised short-term courses of training in different fields of dairying are also to be organised at Kamal and Bangalore, at the milk colonies of Aarey and Haringhatta and at the Agricultural Institute, Allahabad during the second five year plan. With a view to harnessing the resources of these institutions for the development of cattle wealth the Central Gosamvardhana Council has instituted a twelvemonth course for training goshala workers for appointment in the more important goshalas.

II Development of Fisheries

27. In recent years efforts have been made to increase the production both of fresh water fish and of sea fish. Progress in this field has received an impetus both from the initiative of the Central and State Governments and from the technical and other assistance received under the Indo-U.S. technical cooperation programme, the In do-Norwegian Fisheries Community Development programme and from the Food and Agricultural Organisation. As against a provision of r.s. 5 crdres in the first five year plan the second plan envisages a total outlay of about Rs. 12 crores—about Rs. 4 crores on the part of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture and about Rs. 8 crores in the plans of States.

28. Fishery statistics, which were in an unsatisfactory state at the beginning of the first five year plan, have improved, to some extent, and the Ministry of Food and Agriculture propose to take steps to arrange for better statistical information regarding the production, supply and marketing of fish. While statistics of fish production are still far from adequate, it is estimated that at the beginning of the first five year plan the total production was about a million metric tons, of which about 20 per cent was accounted for by production for domestic use and the balance represented sea fish and the marketable surplus of inland fish. During the first plan,it is estimated that fish production has increased by about 10 per cent, the production in 1955-56 being about 1.1 million metric tons. During the second plan it is expected that fish production will rise by about 33 per cent i.e. to about 1.4 million metric tons. The present per capita consumption of fish is slightly less than 4 Ibs. per annum. A 50 per cent increase in fish production over a period of about 10 years is a task within the bounds of practical accomplishment.

Inland Fisheries

29. The development of inland fisheries was begun on a small scale even before the first five yearpfan, but has since been intensified. In West Bengal, during the first five year plan, 2500 acres of semi-derelict tanks, 378 acres of under-developed beels and about 13,500 acres of smaller collections of water have been brought under fish culture. In Orissa, large swampy areas have been reclaimed and utilised for fish culture. Special emphasis has been placed on increasing the availability of fish seed. Nearly 2600 lakhs of spawn and fry were collected in 1954-55. It has also been possible to materially reduce the rate of mortality of fry and fingerlings in nursery and rearing {sonds and during transport. Some States have undertaken legislation for bringing neglected waters under fish culture. Surveys of waters are also being undertaken, for instance, in 1954-55 about 25,000 acres of water area was surveyed in different States and an additional area of more than 9,000 acres was stocked. The development of fisheries in large reservoirs has also been taken in hand. The Mettur reservoir in Madras has been developed and can now produce about 5 tons of fish per day. Similar work has been initiated or is being planned for a number of other reservoirs. The plans of States provide about Rs. 5 crores for the further development of inland fisheries.

Marine Fisheries

30. While the development of" inland fisheries is important, the greater part of the programme of fisheries development relates necessarily to marine fisheries. The problems of fishermen have to be understood and solved in the context of the environment in which they live. Technological developments and research have a vital contribution to make in this field, but the central emphasis should be on the fishermen himself, the means at his disposal, the local community to which he belongs and the manner in which his work is to be further reorganised and developed. Community development among fishermen presents special problems of extension, organisation and technical development. It is from this aspect that the Indo-Norwegian fisheries project in Travancore-Cochin has a larger significance than the immediate tasks undertaken may suggest. Increasingly, the emphsis in the dvelopment of fisheries should be on a coordinated approach to the social and economic life of villages and groups of villages whose main source of livelihood is fishing.

31. These villages are engaged in producing fish for the market, so that their economy is largely bound up with arrangements for the collection, transport and marketing of fish. Here thel central fact of the situation is that the vast majority of fishermen are dependent on middlemen for meeting their domestic needs and-securing their production requisites. Frequently, they are in debt and have to pledge their caich in advance. This leads to low productivity and to hand-to-mouth existence for most fishermen, besides exposing them to constant exploitation. Difficult as it may be, in the main, it is along co-operative lines that the production of sea fish and the reorganisation needed among fishing communities has to be undertaken. During the first five year plan useful beginnings have been made. About 800 fishermen's co-operative societies have been organised. Most of them are concerned with credit, but a number also provide facilities for purchase of requisites and some undertake cooperative production and marketing. In Bombay co-operative societies of fishermen have made encouraging progress. These societies are supported by a central co-operative organisation which markets, on an average, fish to the value of about Rs. 8 lakhs per annum and, with assistance from the Government, have taken steps to provide boats, engines and ice and cold storage plants. Madras has 236 societies and, while most of them provide credit, some have also organised supplies offoodgrains, yam, sail cloth, fishing hooks, etc. In Orissa fishermen's cooperatives market fish of the value of about Rs. 32 lakhs per annum and arrange for the supply of fisher-mens' requirements. Cooperative marketing has also been developed in fishing villages in Saurashtrs.

32. In the development of sea fisheries, the tasks to be undertaken fall broadly under four categories:
(1) improvement of fishing methods, (2) development of deep sea fishing, (3) the provision of fishing harbours, and (4) the organisation of fish transport, storage, marketing and utilisation of fish. Witli the craft now in use, the activities of fishermen are confined largely to a coastal belt of about 7 to 10 miles, so that fish resources further away or in deeper waters are exploited only to a very limited extent For increasing production in off-shore waters, mechanisation of fishing craft and improved fishing methods are essential. During the past four years in Bombay about 600 boats have been 'motorised' and the supply of fish to the city of Bombay has increased four-fold from 10,000 tons to 40,000 tons per annum. In Saurashtra more ihan 40 boats have been fitted with inboard engines, in addition to the use of outboard motors m some boats. In some maritime States, with the assistance of foreign experts, designs of existing boats are being modified and new designs are being studied. The second five year plan provides for the expansion of existing activities relating to mechanisation and development of improved fishing methods.

33. The Central Deep Sea Fishing Station at Bombay has undertaken exploratory fishing operations for charting fishing grounds, assessing the suitability of different kinds of craft and gear under Indian conditions, determining fishing seasons and training of personnel. Areas off" the coast of Bombay and Saurashtra within the 40 fathom line have been charted to a considerable extent and some valuable fishing grounds have been located. Various methods of fishing arc being tried out by a fleet of seven vessels. Similar work has been undertaken in the Bay of Bengal by the West Bengal Government, and in Madas, Travancore-Cochin and Saurashtra also experimental fishing with different kinds of boats and gear has been in progress. The activities of the Deep Sea fishing Station at Bombay are to be extended and the charting of fishing grounds beyond the 40 fathom line undertaken during the second five year plan. Exploratory fishing and charting of fishing grounds have also to be carried out further south, on the west coast and on the east coast. Three exploratory fishing stations are to be established at Cochin, Visakhapat-nam and Port Blair."

34. With the expansion of off-shore and mechanised fishing programmes, it is necessary to improve harbour facilities for fishing vessels. New harbours and berthing facilities at existing harbours have to be developed. The various problems which arise in this field are being studied with the assistance of the experts from the Food and Agricultural Organisation. Plans of the maritime States provide for the expansion of fishing harbour facilities.

35. Although in some areas, especially on the west coast there is a plentiful supply of fish, transport and cold storage facilities have been inadequate, leading to insufficient and irregular distribution in inland areas. Plans of States have stressed improvement in transport facilities. In Bombay, already more than 60 trucks and 30 carrier launches are being used for bringing fish to town. Road transport is also being developed. The Central Government propose to procure 20 refrigerated railway wagons for long distance transport. For sending fish spawn and fry from Calcutta to deficit areas, air transport is also being used to some extent. In view of the importance of ice and cold storage facilities, the Central Government have established a plant at Bombay, the Madras Government have set up two plants at Kozikode and Mangalore, and under the Indo-Norwegian programme an ice plant is being erected in Travancore-Cochin. A number of small ice and cold-storage plants received under the Indo-U.S. Technical Cooperation programme are being erected at important fishing centres and some of these will be operated. by cooperatives.

36. In many places fish markets are controlled by middlemen or by combinations of businessmen, so that the fisherman gets a low price for his produce and the consumer pays a high price for what he buys. Some areas have a considerble surplus to sell as, for instance, Saurashtra, which can export nearly 90 per cent of the total fish catch and the Chilka Lake area in Orissa. On account of inadequate transport facilities much of the fish goes to curing yards to be processed and,marketed as dried fish. Plans of States provide fof the better organisation of curing and marketing of dried fish. At present about 27,000 tons of fish products, consisting mostly of dried, dry-salted and wet-salted fish, are exported to neighbouring countries. Some of the trash fish, not being fit for consumption, is processed as fish-meal and fish manure and in a few States shark liver oil is also manufactured. Small quantities of shark liver oil are exported and steps are being taken to utilise sea-weeds on a cottage industry basis for the manufacture ofagar agar, jelly, algine, cattle feed and manure. The development of a fisheries bye-products industry has considerable scope and should be undertaken as part of the work of multipurpose cooperative societies serving fishing villages.

Research And Training

37. In the second five year plan considerable importance has been attached to the development of research. A beginning in this direction was made before the first five year plan with the setting up by the Central Government in 1947 of,two fisheries research stations, one at Mandapam for marine fisheries and the other at Calcutta for fresh and brackish water fisheries. The Central Marine Fisheries Research Station, which has sub-stations at Bombay, Karwar, Calicut, Cochin and Madras, undertake research on problems of marine fisheries, including estimation of fishery resources, the rate of present exploitation, the possibilities of increasing production and utilisation and measures of conservation. The economic and technical problems of commercial fisheries like mackerel, sardine and prawns, trawl fisheries, development of saline coastal tracts into fish farms, utilisation of sea weed, etc., have been specially studied. Investigations have indicated several directions in which the management and conservation measures could be developed for fishing and allied operations.

38. Problems of inland fisheries are being investigated at the Central Inland Fisheries Research Station, Barrackpore (Calcutta) and its three substations. Investigations are carried out at Allahabad on riverine and .lacustrine fisheries, at Cuttack on pond fisheries and at Calcutta on estuarine fisheries. Studies have been carried out for the development of techniques for reduction in the mortality of fry and fingerlings in the early stages of fish culture and transport and progress has been made in the improvement and standardization of fish cultural practices. Programmes of investigation have been drawn up for the second five year plan with particular reference to estuarine fisheries, brackish water fish fanning, fisheries in natural and artificial lakes, and fisheries in the large river systems, effects of pollution on fisheries and control of weeds. Local problems are being studied in several States and the Indian Council of Agricultural Research also sponsors special schemes. Research work in fisheries was reviewed by a committee set up in 1954 which also advised on the expansion programmes of the Central Stations. The fisheries research programmes of the Central Fisheries Research Stations, of fisheries departments in the States and of universities are being coordinated with the assistance of a Standing Fisheries Research Committee. It is proposed to establish a fisheries technological station to undertake investigations on designs of fishing nets and other gear, material for manufacture and preservation of nets and gear. storage offish in fresh, chilled and frozen conditions, processing and utilisation of fish and other marine products and the establishment of commodity standards and grades for marketing and expansion.

39. Training facilities for the staff of fisheries departments and for research workers are provided at the Central Inland fisheries Research Station at Calcutta. Training in powered fishing is imparted-dn the vessels of the Central Deep Sea Fishing Station in Bombay and those of the West Bengal Government in Calcutta. These facilities are to be extended under the second five year plan. The training of fishermen is as important as the training of technicians and research workers. Along with the Governments of Bombay and Saurashtra the Central Government have set up a training centre for fishermen in mechanised fishing at Satpati near Bombay, and similar centres are to be established at Tudcorin and Cochin. Training in mechanised fishing is also being given in Travancore-Cochin at the Indo-Norwegian project There are also facilities for short refresher courses at the two Central Research Stations for senior officers of the State Governments.

40. Useful experience has been gained during the past few years. Problems connected with the provision of facilities and the organisation of extension work among fishermen, need to be studied more closely, so that during the secod five year plan a large programme of cooperative development can be undertaken among fishermen in the maritime States.

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