|2nd Five Year Plan||
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An efficient and well-developed system of transport and communications is vital to the success of a plan of economic development, which lays stress on rapid industrialisation. In the past, the dominant considerations in the development of transport and communications in the country were trade and administration; but since the second world war the transport system has been increasingly oriented to serve the needs of industrial development. The second plan will carry this process much further. The amount allotted for transport and communications in the second plan is Rs. 1385 crores or about 29 per cent of the total outlay in the public sector. Considering the heavy demands that will be made on the country's means of transport and communications, it is felt that even larg'er resources than those allocated could be utilized for this sector with profit to the national economy. The allotment had, however, to be limited in view of other pressing claims on the available resources. Of the total amount of Rs. 1385 crores set apart for transport and communications, Rs. 900 crores are provided for railways, Rs. 266 crores for roads, road transport and tourism, Rs. 100 crores for shipping, ports and harbours, light houses and inland water transport, Rs. 43 crores for civil air transport and Rs. 76. crores for communications and broadcasting.
2. In the first five year plan the principal task in the field of transport was to rehabilitate, to the extent possible, the assets which during the preceding decada had been subjected to unprecedented strain. The task was particularly heavy in the case of the railways; but large amounts had also to be set apart for the rehabilitation of shipping, ports and harbours, light houses and civil ;iir transport. During the first plan, as agricultural and industrial production increased, the pressure on the transport system began to be felt, especially from (he third year of the plan. To meet this. situation, additional allotments were made for railways, roads, shipping, river and air transport and the programmes were stepped up. The programme for the procurement of rolling stock for.railways was accelerated and special measures were undertaken to augment line capacity over the more difficult sections. An inter-'.lepartmental study group examined questions relating lo the co-ordinated development of all means of transport and, in particular, of road transport which of late had failed to respond adequately to growing needs. Measures to liberalise licensing policies and remove other obstacles hampering the development of road transport in the private sector have been pursued. S,teps have also been taken to assist Indian shipping.
3. While the task of rehabilitation still remains to be completed, the second plan envisages substantial expansion of the country's means of transport, especially railways, which must inevitably continue to move the largest part of the traffic. The railway expansion has to be closely integrated with programmes of industrial development, particularly of major industries like steel, coal and cement. The second plan also seeks to provide for better co-ordination between the various means of transport. To and increasing extent it is proposed to secure the participation of railways in road transport undertakings in the State sector. Problems of co-ordination between railways and coastal shipping on the one hand and between railways and inland river transport on the other, are receiving attention. Thus, the plan envisages development to the maximum extent possible of all important means of transport in the country and their proper co-ordination with a view to entrusting to each the tasks which it is best suited to carry out. The essence of the situation is that heavy demands are likely to be made on all the transport services during the next five years. It is proposed to review the programmes for transport and communications from year to year so that, wherever necessary, additional steps can be taken to ensure that transport bottle-necks do not jeopardise the implementation of plans in other sectors.
4. Indian Railways represent a total capital investment of about Rs. 974 crores and are the largest national undertaking. Without doubt they are among the main foundations on which the national economy rests. They provide a service which must be safe, economical and efficient. In their operation railways have always to keep abreast of modem scientific and technological developments. Diesel and electric motive power, improved types of steam locomotives, improved designs of wagons and coaches and improved signalling and tele-communication equipment have to be employed to an increasing extent in order to secure economy and efficiency. Improvements along these lines to be undertaken in the second plan should lead to the operation of longer, heavier and, to the extent necessary, faster trains, thus securing fuller use of line capacity and rolling stock. It will be necessary also, as resources permit, to open up several parts of the country which are at present without adequate railway communications.
PROGRESS DURING THE FIRST PLAN
5. The first five year plan had been preceded by more than a decade of the most severe strain on the railway system. The plan had, therefore, to be devoted mainly to the rehabilitation and modernisation of rolling stock and of fixed assets. Other objects of the plan were to create, as far as possible, additional facilities for meeting some of the new needs which would arise from the implementation of schemes of production and development, and to provide better amenities for the travelling public and better housing and welfare for the staff. These aims have been pursued steadily throughout the period of the first plan. Against the original allotment ofRs. 400 crores, including Rs. 150 crores on account of current depreciation, the total expenditure on the railway programmes in the five years of the plan is expected to be of the order of Rs. 432 crores. The increase in expenditure has been due largely to the stepping up of the rolling stock programme during the past two or three years. The increased procurements of rolling stock accompanied by special measures designed to improve the utilisation of stock and to augment line capacity enabled the ' railways to step up loadings substantially, especially during the second half of the plan period. Thus, between 1953-54 and 1954-55, the traffic carried by railways, in terms of tons originating, increased by about 8 per cent. and it is estimated that in the last year of the plan it will have increased further by about 9 per cent. The volume of traffic offering, however, has increased more rapidly than the capacity of the railways to carry it and if the average rate of daily loadings has risen, the outstanding registrations have risen at an even greater rate.
6. Details of the estimated outlay under different heads during the first five year plan are set out below:
** The reduction is on account ofde--ieasc in stores balances and credit taken for released materials and other recoveries.
7. Rolling stock.At the commencement of the first five year plan, Indian railways had 8209 locomotives, 19,225 coaches and 222,441 wagonst on the line. Of these, 2112 locomotives, 7011 coaches and 39,584 wagons were over-aged and required replacement. The plan provided for the procurement of 1038 locomotives, 5674 coaches and 49,143 wagons. The programme for locomotives and wagons, however, was stepped up later. It is expected that new stock to the extent shown below will have been received by the end of the first plan period :
The new stock received during the plan period has been used in part for the replacement of over-aged stock which could no longer be kept in service. The stock on line at the end of the first plan will be 9262 locomotives, 23,779 coaches and 266,049 wagons. Of these 2813 locomotives, 6305 coaches and 49,568 wagons will be over-aged and due for replacement. Thus, despite large-scale procurement in recent years, there will be heavy arrears of replacement to be overtaken during the period of the second plan. Considerable efforts have been made to achieve a larger measure of self-sufficiency in regard to rolling stock.The indigenous production of wagons was increased from 3707 in 1951-52 to 13,526 in 1955-56 and of coaches from 673 to 1260. The Chittaranjan Locomotive Works will have produced during the plan period 337 locomotives as against the original target of 268. The production of metre gauge locomotives by the Tata Locomotive and Engineering Company was increased from 10 in 1951-52 to 50 in 1955-56. The Integral Coach Factory at Perambur, Madras, was completed during the plan period and went into production in October 1955.
8. New lines, restoration of dismantled lines and electrification.During the period of the plan 430 miles of lines dismantled during the war have been restored; 380 miles of new lines constructed and 46 miles of narrow gauge lines converted into metre gauge. At the end of the first plan 454 miles of new lines were under construction and 52-miles of narrow gauge lines were in the course of conversion into broad gauge. Construction work on electrification in the Calcutta suburban area commenced during the plan period and the first phase of the project is likely to be completed by 1958.
The renewal of obsolete track has proceeded somewhat slowly on account of shortage of materials. The mileage under speed restriction on account of the poor condition of the track is, however, expected to be reduced from 3000 as in 1950-51 to 1784 by the end of the plan period.
9. Structural engineering works.Special attention has been given in recent years to the development of line capacity. Priority in this programme was accorded to sections where the demand had greatly outstripped the available capacity and both long-term and short-term measures were adopted to develop capacity. The programme included lengthening of crossing loops to enable longer goods trains to be run, provision of additional crossing stations and loops, improvement in yard facilities, extension of transhipment yards and improvement of signalling. As a result of these measures substantial increases in capacity have been effected over various sections, notable among these being Madras-Bezwada, Kharagpur-Waltair, Jhajha-Moghalsarai, Allahabad-Kanpur, Ratlam-Godhra, Bhusaval-Surat, Ahmedabad-Kalol and Sini-Gomharria. Transhipment facilities have been substantially augmented at Manduadih, Sawai-Madhopur, Sabarmati, Viramgam, Ghorpuri, Gun-takal, Bangalore and Arkonam. Among the major yards which have been re-modelled are those at Bez-wada and Ratlam.
TARGETS FOR THE SECOND PLAN
10. The rehabilitation and modernisation of railway assets, both. mobile and immobile, have to be continued during the second plan so as to reduce the proportion of over-aged stock retained in service and to facilitate the removal of speed restrictions in force over obsolete portions of the track. At the same time increases in line capacity and rolling stock have to be planned to meet the greater demand for rail transport which will arise from increased production in various sectors. The targets adopted for agriculture, coal, mineral ores, iron and steel, cement, fertilisers, heavy and light machinery and consumer goods have been set out in earlier chapters. The plan of development for the railways has been prepared with these targets in view, but there will be need for constant review and adjustments in order to keep pace with changes which may occur as different parts of the national plan are fulfilled.
11. In the light of the production targets of the second plan, the additional goods traffic requiring to be handled has been assessed as follows:
**The target for increse in production of cement has since been revised upwards. In deciding un the location of new factories the impact on rail transport in each case will have to be carefully examined. It may be possible to divert some of the additional production to movement by coastal shipping or by road.
The railways are expected to carry 115 million tons of originating traffic in 1955-56 against an estimated demand of 120 million tons, leaving a gap of 5 million tons, which, however, is expected to be covered as a result of measures which have been already undertaken. Taking into account the additional traffic of 60.8 million tons which is expected to arise by the end of the second plan, the total traffic requiring to be handled by 1960-61 will be 180.8 million tons. It is felt that with the resources so far allocated for railway development, the railways may not be in a position to carry all this traffic and that the facilities provided by them may fall short of requirements by about 10 per cent. in respect 01 rolling stock and by about 5 per cent. in respect of line capacity. - A certain measure of relief may, however, be expected from the retention of replaced stock found in serviceable condition. The position will be kept under review and such adjustments as are necessary in the railway plan will be made in the light of developments in other sectors.
12. In regard to passenger services, the plan provides for an increase of 3 per cent. per annum or of 15 , per cent. over five years. This will not help much to : relieve over-crowding, if passenger traffic continues to '. grow at the current rates. Requirements of goods traf-1 fie will be more pressing during the second plan and some degree of passenger over-crowding has to be accepted. In this connection, however, the possibility of a larger proportion of passenger traffic being carried by road transport has to be taken into account.
13. Owing to the limited funds available, the plan does not provide for the construction of new lines to open up parts of the country at present unserved by railways. The provision in the plan for new lines is confined to lines required for operational purposes and for the new industrial projects.
OUTLAY UNDER THE SECOND PLAN
14. The plan allots Rs. 900 crores for railway development in addition to contributions to the Railway Depreciation Fund which are estimated at Rs. 225 crores. The railways are expected to provide Rs. 150 crores from their own revenues towards the planned outlay and it is proposed that the remaining Rs. 750 crores should be made available from the general revenues. The magnitude of resources to be provided for the programme of die railways for the second five year plan has received close study and attention. The draft plan which the Ministry of Railways had prepared in line with developments anticipated in other sectors, involved a total outlay of Rs. 1480 crores. After taking into consideration foreign exchange requirements, uncertainties cenceming the supply of steel, priorities within the railway plan" and the claims of other sectors, the estimates have been substantially reduced. In determining the minimum allocations needed by the railways, the requirements of increased traffic have been the principal guiding factor. Suitable adjustments have been made in the programme for augmenting the capacity of the railways to handle increased traffic so as to economise capital investment to the extent possible. Thus, over certain sections of the railway system it was agreed to substitute dieselisation for electrification. Similarly, over selected sections instead of doubling of the entire lengths of lines which had reached saturation, partial doubling has been provided for. The programmes for renewal of obsolete track and replacement of overaged stock have been curtailed and the intention is to continue using the replaced stock found in serviceable condition and thus to make the limited allotment for railways go so far as possible in fulfilling the targets of the plan. The railway plan now provides for doubling of 1607 miles of track, conversion of 265 miles of metre gauge lines into broad gauge, electrification over sections totalling 826 miles and dieselisation over 1293 miles, construction of 842 miles of new Jines, renewal of 8000 miles of obsolete track and procurement of 2258 locomotives, 107,247 wagons and 11,364 coaches. The statement below gives the distribution of the total amount of Rs. 1125 crores over the various programmes included- in the railway plan.
** To be obtained by Ihe Railways from outside the Equalisation Pool.
15. Of the total outlay, approximately Rs. 425 crores will be required in terms of foreign exchange. The foreign exchange requirements for different programmes are shown below:
The foreign exchange requirements are mainly for special types of stock like electric and diesel locomotives and special wagons. Efforts will continue to be made to attain as large a measure as possible of self-sufficiency in respect of rolling stock.
16. The rolling stock programmes.The provision of Rs. 380 crores for rolling stock includes Rs. 183 crores for development and Rs. 197 crores for rehabilitation. In all, it is proposed togSecure 2258 locomotives, 11,364 coaches and 107,247 wagons. In the table below details of die rehabilitation programme and the additional requirements for development are given separately:
17. In determining the rehabilitation programme it is proposed that all locomotives and wagons which will fall within the age group 4045 years in 1960-61 should be retained in service. As regards locomotives and wagons which will be over 45 years old, a number equivalent to the number of such locomotives and wagons expected to be on the line in March 1956 will be retained in service. With this programme, the proportion of over-aged locomotives and wagons will be reduced considerably as shown below. The proportion of over-aged coaching stock is proposed to be reduced to about 10 per cent. of the total stock at the end of the second plan.
Percentage of overaged stock to total stock on line
18. Workshops, plant and machinery.To cope with the increase in rolling stock, several of the existing workshops and running sheds are to be re-modelled and expanded and new workshops will be established. The plan provides for six new workshops, a new metre-gauge coach building factory and a furnishing unit for the Integral Coach Factory. The Chittaranjan Locomotive Works are to be expanded. The provision ofRs. 65 crores proposed under this head is distributed as shown below:
As .a result of this programme, the overall annual capacity in respect of overhaul of rolling stock is expected to increase as shown in the table below:
The capacity for repair and overhaul of tank-wagons and electric locomotives and coaches is also proposed to be stepped up. The production capacity of Chit-taranjan Locomotive Works is expected to be increased to 300 average sized locomotives a year. The capacity of the Integral Coach Factory, Perambur which is ultimately expected to be 350 broad gauge unfurnished coaches, may reach 200 coaches per year early in the plan period.
19. Along with programmes for the expansion and remodelling of workshops, special measures for their maximum utilisation have also been considered. These may include setting up of a proper organisation for production control and the introduction of multiple shifts in certain sectors of the shops. Efforts to attain self-sufficiency in respect of railway rolling stock and railway stores have to be continued in the second plan period. This aspect has been taken into account in formulating the programmes of industries in the private sector. TELCO expect to increase the production of locomotives to 100 per year. This, together with the expansion programme at Chittaranjan, should provide for the production of 400 locomotives a year. Of these 300 will be broad gauge and 100 metre gauge. The production of coaches is expected to increase from 1260 to about i800 per annum and of wagons from 13,526 to about 25,000 per annum by the end of the second plan period. Proposals for developing indigenous capacity for the manufacture of railway stores and stock are at present being examined by a special committee.
20. Track renewals.Speed restrictions over lengths of line laid with obsolete track reduce line capacity and slow down movement. At the end of the first plan, the arrears of track renewals will be about 7000 miles. The mileage under speed restrictions due to the poor conditions of the track, which was 3000 at the beginning of the plan, is expected to be reduced to 1784 by March 1956. The arrears of renewals from the first plan, together with the renewals accruing during the second plan period will aggregate to approximately 13,000 miles. Of these, 4500 miles on the broad gauge and 4100 miles on the metre gauge are on trunk routes on the main lines. The rest of the arrears of track renewal relate to branch lines, but a number of these are important. The plan provides for the renewal of 1600 miles of track each year or a total of 8000 miles over the entire plan period.
21. Line Capacity works.In. order to meet the increased demand for rail transport during the second plan period, it is necessary to increase the present line capacity by about 50 per cent. The plan provides for the doubling of 1607 miles and the conversion of 265 miles from metre gauge to broad gauge. It also provides for additional crossing stations, loop lines, extensions of Ipops at a large number of stations and extensive re-modelling of a number of big yards. The following sections are proposed to be doubled:
* In the case of these
lines, only partial doubling is provided for; the mileage to be
The metre gauge sections proposed to be converted into broad gauge are:
22. Signalling and safety works.In order to ensure safety of operation, and improve line capacity on busy sections, provision has been made for the installation of improved signalling. The programme includes:
Safety works include provision of lock and block instruments on double line, token instruments on single line, track circuits in important yards and interlocking of level crossings, catch sidings and slip sidings. Increased tele-communication facilities will be provided by way of more long and short distance wireless links, very high frequency equipment for marshalling yard and by opening additional section control circuits.
23. Electrification.Where line capacities have reached saturation, plans for electrification have been drawn up with a view to promoting efficiency of operation and developing capacity economically. The plan provides for the electrification of 826 miles of railway lines on the following sections:
24. Dieselisation.In order to achieve more economic and efficient operation, it is tentatively proposed to carry traffic by diesel mdtive power on 1020 miles of broad gauge sections of line and 273 miles of metre gauge sections. The sections on which dieselisation is proposed to be introduced me mentioned below:
25. Bridges.The plan provides Rs. 9 crores for the Ganga Bridge project on which preliminary work was started in 1953-54. The bridge will be 6074 feet long with a wide modern roadway above and a modern transhipment yard on the north bank to handle 350 to 400 broad gauge wagons daily. It is estimated to cost in all Rs. 16 crores and is expected to be completed early in 1960. Provision has been made in the plan to start work, among others, on three important bridges, one each across the Brahmaputra, the Jumna and the Gandak. In addition, adequate provision is being made for the continuance of bridge rehabilitation work during the second plan period.
26. New lines.The plan provides for the construction of 842 miles of new lines which are needed either for meeting urgent operational requirements or in connection with the expansion of the iron and steel and coal industries. The list of lines included in the plan is given below:
27. Staff Welfare.As the largest single employer in the country the welfare of their workers and employees has a high priority In the plans of Indian railways. Housing and welfare of staff will continue to receive special attention. In view of the large increase in the number .of staff to be employed as a result of the additional traffic to be handled, the provision for staff welfare and staff quarters has to be appreciably increased. Rs. 35 crores are being provided for staff quarters and Rs. 15 crores for staff amenities. About 66,000 quarters are expected to be built, including those at townships required for the new workshops- About 13 hospitals and 75 dispensaries with about 1600 beds will be provided as part of the staff welfare programme in the second plan.
28. Amenities for rail users.The programme for passenger amenities includes the remodelling of stations so as to provide retiring rooms and waiting accommodation, refreshment rooms and vendor stalls, the raising, extending and widening of platforms; and construction of new over-bridges etc. The programme also provides for improved latrines, bathing facilities and water supply arrangements at stations, provision of electric liglits and fans in waiting rooms and improvement of existing passenger carriages, etc. The details of amenities to be supplied and the order or priority in whicli the works are to be taken up will be determined in consultation with the Rail Users' Consultative Committees. On account of the limited funds available, it will be necessary to ensure that the programmes in this regard are drawn up on austerity standards.
29. Slores siispenie account.In order to ensure timely and adequate supply of materials for the execution of various projects, it is proposed to maintain readily available stocks of stores in suitably located construction stores dcool.s. There is bound to be a sizeable quantity of stores in stock, at any one time, and it is expected that stores worth about Rs. 25 crores may be held in stock at the end of the plan period. The stores include interlocking and signalling material and special steel for the manufacture of wagons. In addition, the present stores balance, which is about Rs. 56 crores will have to be augmented lo the extent of Rs. 25 crores to meet the anticipated increase in stores balances as a result of the railways' expansion programme.
30. Training programme.Railway development plans will call for a large increase in personnel. The additional staff required for handling the increased traffic and maintaining new assets is estimated at 165,000. As the majority of the new recruits will require initial training, the plan provides for adequate arrangements for recruitment and training. In addition to the strengthening of the existing training facilities, provision has been made for nine additional training schools. The Ministry of Railways have already commenced recruitment of temporary officers and staff to cope with the expansion programmes.
COORDINATION OF TRANSPORT
31. The Railway pl.m has lo take into account the development of other means of transport, namely, roads, inland waterways, sea and air. Effective coordination of all forms of transport in their appropriate funclions so as to avoid wasteful duplication is essential. For the development of nationalised road transport the general policy has been to favour the setting up of corporations under the Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950 which enables the Railways to participate. The formation ,of such corporations should lead to the coordination of rail transport with road transport so as to secure 'integrated operations' in the best interest of the country. There is also the problem of coordination between rail transport and inland water transport; tills has special importance in the north-eastern part of the country where the Joint Steamer Companies carry considerable traffic. Tliere is a further problem of coordination between railways and coastal shipping so as to ensure harmonious development of these two forms of transport. An expert committee is at present examining this subject. These and other problems of coordination have to be kept under review, so that the adaptations needed can be made from time to time.
POLICY AND ORGANISATION
32. One of the most important tasks of Indian Railways is to secure the best use of the rolling stock and of line capacities with a view to achieving progressively greater efficiency and economy. This requires a carefully planned and organised effort both to minimise long leads and cross movements and to raise the general levels'of railway efficiency. The former objective is to some extent ensured at present through a system of rationalisation of rail movement applicable to a few selected commodities, namely, cement, iron and steel, coal, piecegoods, sugar and salt. This may have to be reviewed further in the light of conditions obtaining during the second plan period. As regards improvements in railway efficiency, it will be necessary to define in advance in annual plans the specific efficiency objectives of railway operations and to report each year on the extent to which the objectives have been realised. The formulation of yearly plans and their implementation will be an arduous responsibility for the Railway Board. The phasing and the implementation of the various programmes will call for careful syn-choronization to ensure economy in expenditure and to avoid waste of assets; and supplies of steel, cement, coal and equipment will also have to be planned well in advance.
33. These are formidable tasks and will require for their fulfilment organisational and administrative arrangements of a high order. It may also be necessary to introduce special procedural changes to secure economy and speed in the execution of the plan. It is only by designing organisation on the right lines that the objectives and programmes of Indian railways during the second five year plan can be fulfilled.
THE ROLE OF RAILWAY WORKERS
34. The extent to which tlie railways can achieve these tasks will depend in the ultimate analysis on the efforts of over one million railwaymen. They are partners in a great national undertaking and an important part of the burden of development during the second five year plan will rest upon them. In the mangagemcnt and running of railway workshops, steps will be taken to secure the increasing participation of railway workers.
35. In the execution of a plan involving so much expenditure, concerted efforts will have to be made to avoid wastages of all kinds and upon the integrity of railway staff will depend the extent to which these efforts can succeed. The Railway Board are already engaged in implementing the recommendations of the Railway Corruption Enquiry Committee.
36. The Nagpur plan of post-war road development laid down as far back as 1943 certain broad objectives for road development in the country. It took a 20-year view and proposed that at the end of this period no village in a well-developed agricultural area should remain more than five miles from a main road. With the political integration of the country after partition, it became necessary to take a more comprehensive view of road development, with special regard to the needs of Part B and Part C states and the States affected by Partition. Attention had to be given to connecting these areas more closely with the rest of the country by improving the existing roads and providing the missing links and bridges. This special task has been largely accomplished. At the beginning of the first five year plan India had 97,000 miles of metalled roads and about 147,000 miles ofunmetalled roads. During the plan period about 10,000 miles of new surfaced roads and about 20,000 miles of low type roads are expected to have been added, and about 10,000 miles of existing roads improved. Over the past five years the total outlay on roads including grants from the Central Road Fund is expected to be of the order of Rs. 155 crores. Between 1947 and 1951, Rs. 48 crores had been spent on roads, so that since partition the total investment on road development has been of the order of Rs. 200 crores.
37. In the second plan, the total allotment including Central and State plans, for road development amounts to about Rs. 246 crores in addition to Rs. 25 crores to be provided from the Central Road Fund. It is estimated that with this programme of investment the target for road mileage proposed in the Nagpur plan will be practically reached by 1960-61.
CENTRAL ROAD PROGRAMMES
38. The first five year plan contained a provision of Rs. 28 crores for national highways including Ban-nihal Tunnel in Jammu and Kashmir. With a view to ensuring economical execution and providing for continuity of work in the second five year plan, a total programme estimated to cost Rs. 57 crores was actually taken up. This included^construction of 1250 miles of missing links, 75 major bridges and improvement of 6000 miles of existing roads. During the first plan the construction of 640 miles of missing links and 40 major bridges and the improvement of 2500 miles of existing roads were expected to be completed. Except for the programme of bridges, where there is some lag, these tasks are expected to be fully accomplished. In respect of improvement works, the actual work done will be nearly twice as much as the programme originally envisaged. At the end of the first plan, work will be in progress on the construction of nearly 650 miles of missing links, and 35 major bridges and on improvement and asphalting of 3000 miles of the existing sections of national highways and the provision of two-lane carriageway on about 300 miles. In the second plan, as in the first, the programme will comprise mainly the construction of major bridges and missing links and the improvement of existing roads. The total cost of the works to be commenced under the second plan has been estimated at Rs. 87.5 crores and comprises the following:
The actual outlay on these works during the second plan is expected to be about Rs. 55 crores.
39. In addition to national highways, the Central Government had undertaken the construction of certain other important roads under the first plan. Work on these will be continued in the second pla*n also; expenditure on them during the plan period may be of Ihe order of Rs. 9 crores. The programme includes the Passi-Badarpur road, the West Coast road and an alternative road connection between Pathankot and Udhampur. The construction of the Passi-Badarpur road was completed during the first plan period and the work of black topping the road and constructing permanent bridges on it will be done in the second plan. The alternative road from Pathankot to Udhampur will also be completed during the second plan. As regards the development oi the West Coast Road, three-fourths of the total work is expected to be done before the end of the second plan. Altogether, about 150 miles of new roads will be constructed and over 500 miles upgraded under this part of the programme.
40. A special programme of inter-state roads and roads of economic importance was taken up in 1954 and Central grants of Rs. 10 crores were approved. This programme will be continued during the second plan. The total outlay is expected to be about Rs. 18 crores, about three-fourths of it being on schemes begun in the first plan. The programme includes inter-state roads and also roads in the border and hilly areas and roads required for the development of tourist traffic. About 1000 miles of roads are expected to be constructed under the programme.
STATE ROAD PROGRAMMES
41. As against a provision of Rs. 93 crores for road development in States in the first plan, a total provision of Rs. 164 crores is being made in the second plan. About 18,000 miles of surfaced roads are expected to be constructed under this programme during the second plan period. The programme takes account of the special needs of backward areas which could not be given adequate attention in the first plan. Some provision has also been made for the improvement of low-grade or earth roads constructed during the first plan period as part of rural development programmes. During the second plan it is anticipated that in national extension and other areas, the development of village roads will be undertaken on and expanded scale, but target for this cannot be easily set in advance and it is not yet possible to estimate the likely mileage. However, the construction and maintenance of village roads and coordination of the work being done on village roads through several agencies will receive full attention in each State as part of its planning of road development.
Ill. ROAD TRANSPORT
42. In the first plan about Rs. 12 crores were provided for nationalised road transport programmes in the States. Of this amount, Rs. 10 crores are expected to be spent in the plan period. In the second plan a provision ofRs. 13.5 crores has been accepted. State Governments have been advised to set up corporations under the Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950 and a provision ofRs.10 crores is being made in the railway plan to enable the Railways to participate in these corporations. In addition, a programme of about Rs. 3 crores has been approved for the Delhi Transport Service in the plan of the Ministry of Transport. Thus, the total investment on nationalised road transport for the second plan period is estimated at about Rs. 27 crores. It is reckoned that the programme as a whole will provide for the addition of about 5000 stage carriages and for the construction of the workshops needed.
43. The total number of motor vehicles on the road, during the last quarter of 1954 was estimated to be 353,000 which, though larger than the number at the commencement of the first plan, i.e., 294,727 must be considered very small, having regard to the size of the country, its road mileage and its population. The general growth of economic activity in the country in recent years and tlie inability of the railways to meet all the traffic demands should provide considerable opportunity for the expansion of road transport. This has, however, not occurred. Almost all goods transport and about three-fourths of the passenger services are at present in the hands of private operators. Despite expansion in the public sector of road transport during the second plan, a large part of the road traffic will continue to be carried by them. The inadequate development of road transport during recent years has been attributed to a number of causes. Among those commonly cited are the fear of nationalization, high levels of taxation on motor transport, restrictions placed on inter-state services and on long haulages under the Code of Principles and Practice, and the policy followed in some States of granting permits for only short periods instead of for three to five years as required by law. All these causes may have been operative to some extent, but it is necessary also to bear in mind that the majority of private operators are small individual owners without resources to extend their operations on sound and businesslike lines.
44. In consultation with the Ministry of Transport the Planning Commission has had the problems of road transport development reviewed by a special study group. The Commission has recommended that the nationalisation of goods transport services .should not be taken up during the second five year, plan and that private operators should be assisted in forming viable units. In regard to passenger transport services, the Commission has recommended that programmes for the expansion of nationalised services should be suitably phased and to the extent that State Governments do not themselves propose to operate road transport services, the terms on which permits are granted to private operators should be liberalised. Action is being taken on the recommendations made by the study group regarding the liberalisation of restrictive licensing policies and the avoidance of double taxation on vehicles operating on inter-state routes. The Central Government propose to take permissive powers to regulate inter-state motor transport. Tliese measures should assist development of road transport during the second five year plan.
45. Methods of improving the ordinary bullock cart, which must continue to play an important part in the economy, have been under consideration. An improved type of wheel with a wider iron tyre was evolved a few years ago. This reduced the tractive effort required for pulling the ca rt and also the damage done to road surfaces. Attempts have been made to popularise the use of this wheel. The Central Road Research Institute has been engaged in experiments on different "self-aligning hubs" for bullock carts. Recently, a decision was taken by the Transport Advisory'Council to start a pilot scheme to test the load-carrying capacity- of carts fitted with rubber tyres. Financial assistance for the scheme will be given, if necessary, from the Central Road Fund.
46. The plans of the Central Government as well as of some States provide for the development of tourism. The programme consists mainly of providing accommodation, transport and recreational facilities at important tourist centres, especially those situated in out of the way places. Broadly, the schemes are of two categories, namely, (a) schemes for the development of facilities at a limited number of places visited largely by foreign tourists, and (b) schemes intended primarily to provide facilities for home tourists of low and middle-income groups at a number of places of regional and local importance. The schemes in the first category will be undertaken by the Central Government and those in. the second group will be implemented by States with a measure of assistance from the Centre. The programme also includes provision for aid to tourist associations and bureaux run by States or local authorities and for publicity in regional languages particularly for the development of tourism within the country.
47. In 1947 the Shipping Policy Committee had recommended a target of 2 million tons to be achieved in 5 to 7 years. In 1950 the Central Government accepted the policy of reservation of coastal trade for Indian tonnage and also assumed responsibility for training personnel for the merchant navy. The growth of Indian tonnage has been a slow process and the opportunity offered to India of building up her tonnage in the immediate post-war period has not been fully availed of. At the beginning of the first plan India had a tonnage of 390,707 G.R.T. The target under the first plan was to add 215,000 G.R.T., after allowing for obsolescence to the extent of 60,000 G.R.T., thus increasing the total tonnage to over 6,00,000 G.R.T. This target is likely to be achieved, although it will take time for some of the new ships to be actually put into commission. In the second plan it is proposed that about 300,000 G.R.T. should be added after allowing for the obsotescence of 90,000 G.R.T. Thus, by-the end of the second plan the total tonnage should be 900,000 G.R.T.
48. The broad objectives under the plan are:
With the achievement of the targets mentioned above, the Indian tonnage is expected to carry about 12 to 15 per cent. of the country's overseas trade and 50 per cent other trade with adjacent countries as against the present proportions respectively of 5 and 40 per cent The.tonnage position at the end of the second plan is compared below with that at the end of the first plan:
(Gross registered tons)
49. In the.first plan a sum of Rs. 19.5 crores was provided for shipping; this was later increased to Rs. 26.3 crores. The actual expenditure over the plan period is expected to be of the order of about Rs. 18 crores. A provision of Rs. 45 crores has been made for the development of shipping but since there is a carry-over of about Rs. 8 crores from the first plan, only about Rs. 37 crores will lie available for the expansion programme during the second plan period. In addition Rs. 1.5 crores are provided in the plan for the development of Andamans and Nicobar Islands for the purchase of one ship for operations between the Islands and the mainland and for three new launches for inter-island communications. For the expansion programmes of the shipping companies, Rs. 10 crores are expected to be provided by the companies from their own resources. Of the total amount allotted in the plan about Rs. 20 crores are for direct investment in the Eastern Shipping Corporation and a new shipping corporation, which is proposed to-be set up for operating shipping services in the Persian Gulf, Red Sea etc. From the balance of the provision expansion programmes of private shipping companies will be assisted. It is, at present, surmised that the amount allotted in the plan will not be sufficient for achieving the full target of an additional 3 lakh tons during the plan period. The additional amount required will depend, among other things, upon the trends in the world prices of tonnage, the extent to which secondhand tonnnage is available from abroad and forms part of the expansion programme and the funds which the private shipping companies can actually make available from their own resources. The position will be kept under review so that such further steps as may be required can be taken to ensure full implementation of the shipping programme. The programme is a modest one and represents a minimum target
50. Some important issues connected with the shipping programme are at present under examination. The Central Government are examining the possibility of liberalising the terms on which financial assistance is granted to shipping companies. Liberalisation of terms has been sought by companies in three directions, namely, reduction in rates of interest, extension of the period of repayment, and increase in the quantum of loans granted for the purchase of ships. The basis of subsidy given by Government in respect of ships-built at the Hindustan Shipyard is also under review and it is hoped to evolve a suitable formula for the determination of prices to be charged in future for ships manufactured at Vishakhapat-nam. Indian shipping companies have also to be assisted in securing an adequate share of India's overseas trade. Steps were taken during the first .plan period to encourage the use of Indian tonnage for cargo controlled by Government and further measures are now being considered so as to evolve a coordinated policy applicable to all cargoes controlled by public as well as semi-public organisations. In respect of coastal traffic, which is reserved for Indian tonnage, the question of closer coordination between railways and coastal shipping is at present being considered by an expert committee.
51. The Central Government have accepted in principle the necessity of affording assistance to the sailing vessels industry by grant of loans or subsidies to owners of sailing vessels who intend to mechanise their vessels. .A sum of Rs. 40 lakhs has .been provided for this purpose.
52. In regard to the training of personnel for the merchant navy, a provision of about Rs. 112 lakhs was made during the first plan for the establishment of the Marine Engineering College at Calcutta and for the ratings training schemes. A sum of about Rs. 95 lakhs is expected to be spent on these schemes during the first plan period. A provision of Rs. 75 lakhs is included in the second plan, Rs. 70 lakhs for a new building for the Nautical and Engineering College Bombay and Rs. 5 lakhs for the contribution of certain additonal buildings for the College at Calcutta.
VI. PORTS AND HARBOURS
53. The sea ports of India comprise (a) "major ports" administered by the Central Government, and (b) "minor ports" administered by the State Governments. After Partition, India was left with five major ports, namely, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Cochin and Vishakhapatnam. At the commencement of the first plan period these ports together handled about 20 million tons of traffic a year which was about equal to their capacity. The principal tasks in the first plan were:
54. The programme for the development of ports undertaken during the first plan period is estimated to cost Rs. 62 crores. The details of the programme were finalised late in the plan period and an expenditure of Rs. 31 crores has so far been incurred agains,t a provision of Rs. 45 crores. At Kandia, the bunder and the oil berth have started functioning" The Bombay marine oil terminal, consisting of three deep water berths capable of berthing the largest oil tankers with connecting sub-marine pipelines to the mainland, has been completed. The reconstruction of the transit sheds in the Prince's and Victoria Docks and electrification of the cranes in the Alexandra Dock are nearing completion. At Calcutta, a spur at Akra, one of the works designed to control the river Hooghly, and a centre ore depot at Sonai yard have been constructed. A large residential colony for 4,000 workers has been completed. The works in progress include the improvement of railway yards at Kidderpore Docks, construction of a heavy lift yard in King George's Dock with a 200-ton crane, two additional general cargo berths, and the construction of a large dredger. The works in progress in Madras include the first stage of the wet dock scheme for new berths and works designed to counteract the sand menace. At Cochin, the new coal berth and oil jetty have been completed. The construction of four new wharf berths is in progress. As a result of all these developments the major ports have now been placed in a position to handle about 25 million tons of traffic.
55. The broad aim in the second plan is to complete the schemes started during the first plan and to modernise and equip the docks so as to provide for new needs arising from the economic and industrial development of the country. A provision of Rs. 40 crores has been included in the plan for the entire programme relating to major ports. Works which will be started, including schemes carried forward from the first plan are expected to cost in all about Rs. 76 crores. In addition to the amount of Rs. 40 crores provided in the plan, some funds may be available to the ports from their own resources. The amount provided in the plan will be utilised for direct Government investment at Kan-dia and for assistance to Port Trusts. The existing concessional terms for loans to Port Trusts are proposed to be continued during the second plan period.
56. The programme for the development of major ports in the second five year plan includes schemes costing Rs. 19.9 crores at Calcutta, Rs. 29.3 crores at Bombay, Rs. 9.2 crores at Madras, Rs. 4.0 crores at Cochin and Rs. 14.0 crores at Kandla.
57. The principal schemes included in the programme at Bombay are the "minimum scheme" for the development of Prince's and Victoria Docks (Rs. 10 crores), dredging of the main harbour channel (Rs. 8 crores), repair berths in Prince's and Victoria Docks (Rs. 2.25 crores), electrification of cranes in Alexandra Dock (Rs. 1.9 crores), floating craft (1-.4 crores), and staff quarters (Rs. 2.26 crores). The "minimum scheme" for the development of Prince's and Victoria Docks will provide for the construction of an entrance lock with sliding caissons and pumping arrangements and ancillary works like widening of the communication passage between the Prince's and Victoria Docks and extension of the berths of Victoria Dock. Details of the scheme are still under examination. The scheme is intended to modernise these docks so as to facilitate the entry of vessels at any time of the day irrespective of tide conditions. A large dredging scheme has become necessary because of the accumulation of silt in the Bombay Harbour over a long period. The plan provides for two additional berths at Bombay for repair of ships.
58. The chief schemes included in the programme for the development of the Calcutta port are the development of docks and berths (Rs. 5.14 crores), river training works (Rs. 2.91 crores), floating craft (Rs. 6.64 crores) and staff quarters (Rs. 1 crore). The programme includes schemes relating to reconditioning and strengthening of quay walls at Kidderpore Docks and a general cargo berth, and improvement and development of berths at King George's Dock and Kidderpore Docks. The river training works at Fulta Point Reach to be undertaken during the second plan period are designed to improve navigation in the Hooghly.
59. The programme for the development of the Madras port includes the first stage of the wet dock scheme, which is estimated to cost Rs. 7 crores. The scheme is intended to provide facilities for handling an increase volume of cargo in four berths in a new wet dock with a communication passage to the existing harbour. The other schemes included in the development programme of the port are an oil dock (Rs. 55 lakhs), floating craft (Rs. 65 lakhs), and port equipment (Rs. 24 lakhs).
60. At Cochin Port, provision has been made for the construction of a coal berth, a berth at Fort Cochin and a berth for asecond tug and for the completion of four additional wharves already under construction. All these schemes are estimated to cost Rs. 152 lakhs. Other schemes in the plan relate to the provision of lighting facilities (Rs. 30 lakhs), port equipment (Rs. 40 lakhs) and staff quarters (Rs. 24 lakhs).
61. At Kandla, four cargo jetties are under construction: two of these will be completed in October 1956 and the remaining two by March 1957. The programme in the second plan provides for two more jetties estimated to cost Rs. 349 lakhs, which are necessary to handle ore traffic. Rs. 3.12 crores have been provided for the development of the township at Gandhidham.
62. Minor Ports. India has over 150 minor ports of which 18 are considered more important and deserve special attention for development. Schemes costing Rs. 2.41 crores for minor ports were included in the first plan; a sum ofRs. 1 crore was to be met from Central loans and the balance was to be found by the port authorities from their own resources. The second plan includes a provision of Rs. 5 crores for the development of minor ports. Rs. 3 crores are required for the development schemes of ports and of the balance about Rs. 1 crore will be spent on a small pool of three dredgers two to be stationed on the west coast and one on the east coast, which will cater for the dredging needs of all minor ports which had hitherto not received proper attention. A sum ofRs. 36 lakhs is also required for the conversion of a naval vessel into a survey ship for the exclusive use of minor ports surveys. The remaining amount will be available for investigations in connection with the provision of all-weather harbours at Paradip, Mangalore and Maipe and for the preliminaries connected with the processing of the Sethusamudram Scheme including the development of Tuticorin. For the development of minor ports in the maritime States, it is likely that the Central Government will continue to grant the loans as during the first five year plan.
63. Lighthouses.A provision of Rs. 4 crores has been made in the second plan for the development of lighthouses. The amount available from the Light House Reserve Fund is estimated at Rs. 80 lakhs and the remaining amount of Rs. 3.2 crores will be obtained by way of loans from Government. The programme includes construction of new lighthouses and the modernisation of existing ones by providing equipment according to recognised standards. In the first plan it was recommended that all lighthouses should be brought on to a central register and gradually taken over by the Central Government. Some progress has been made in this direction and the process will be conti'nued during the second plan. In 1953, the Lighthouse Act was amended and Lighthouse dues were increased from 2 annas to 4 annas per ton.
VII. INLAND WATER TRANSPORT
64. Inland waterways played an important role in the transport system of India up to the middle of the nineteenth century. Since then an account of the various factors including the development of railways and withdrawals of large amounts of water for irrigation in the upper reaches of rivers, water transport has been steadily declining. In the north-eastern regions of the country, however, water transport continues to play a significant part. It is estimated that about 5,000 miles of river routes in India could be made navigable by modem power craft. At present, 1557 miles of rivers are navigable by mechanically propelled country vessels and 3587 miles of river stretches are navigable by large country boats. Navigation can be developed on shallow stretches by either deepening the channels, by regulation works, canalisation and drcdgings or by using craft especially designed to negotiate shallow stretches. The first set of measures entails heavy capital outlay and maintenance of dredging. Attention has therefore been focussed mainly on the use of specially designed craft. The Ganga Brahmaputra Board, which was set up in the first plan period, has already taken up three experimental projects. Two of these projects are on the Upper Ganga and the feeder rivers of Assam and the third is a project in Assam for a passenger and vehicular ferry vessel on the. Brahmaputra. Craft designed for the Upper Ganga project will be brought into use early in the second plan period. The specifications of craft for the other two projects are being worked out During the second plan period, it is proposed to carry out development works in the Ganga Brahmaputra region. These will include dredging of important waterways, provision of aids to navigation, such as radio-telephone, automatic beacons and the development of inland port facilities at selected places. The plan also provides for the development of the Buckingham Canal as well as its linking with the Madras harbour and the development of the West Coast canals.
65. A provision of Rs. 3 crores has been made in the second plan for the development of inland water transport. This includes Rs. 115 lakhs for the development of the Buckingham Canal and Rs. 43 lakhs for the West Coast canals. The balance of the provision together with contributions from State Governments to the revenues of the Ganga Brahmaputra Board will be available for projects to be undertaken by the Board. It has been agreed that for the time being, existing arrangements for financing the projects in the Ganga Brahmaputra region should continue. Under these, the Central Government contributes a matching grant to the recurring expenditure of the Ganga Brahmaputra Board and meets all the capital expenditure needed for the project.. The Central Government will also consider meeting the capital expenditure on the development of the Buckingham Canal, which is an inter-State project, provided that after investigation the economic advantages to be derived from the project justify the investment. In respect of the Ganga-Brahmaputra waterways, the Ganga Brahmaputra Water Transport Board will be the main agency for the execution of projects. In the South, instead of constituting a separate board, pro- . jects will be undertaken by the State Governments concerned, their work being coordinated to the extent necessary.
VIII. CIVIL AIR TRANSPORT
66. Civil Aviation. Civil aviation has made rapid progress during the past fifteen years'. It was in 1920 that the Government of India first decided to prepare air routes between Bombay and Calcutta and Calcutta and Rangoon, and to undertake the responsibility of constructing the necessary aerodromes and providing them with equipment and other facilities. The civil aviation works were actually started by Government in 1924-25, but progress'was slow until the second world war. Since Partition, expenditure on civil aviation works has been gradually increasing. Between 1947 and the commencement of the first plan, about Rs. 6.6 crores were spent on these works and a further expenditure of about Rs. 8 crores is expected to have been incurred during the plan period. Works estimated to cost about Rs. 18 crores are expected to be started during the second plan, the provision in the plan being about Rs. 12.5 crores. The programme aims at meeting the new demands which have arisen from recent technical advances and from India's obligation under the Convention on International Civil Aviation to provide facilities at aerodromes in conformity with standards laid down by the Convention. The programme for civil aviation includes works at aerodromes (Rs. 8.3 crores), tele-communication equipment (Rs. 2.8 crores), air routes and aerodromes equipment (Rs. 70 lakhs), training and education equipment (Rs. 50 lakhs), research and development equipment (Rs. 16 lakhs) and aeronautical inspection equipment (Rs. 3.8 lakhs).
67. At present 81 aerodromes are maintained and operated by the Civil Aviation Department. During the first plan, 9 new aerodromes have been constructed and two more are lykely to be completed by the end of 1956. The Department has been taking over some aerodromes from the Ministry of Defence also. It is expected that 8 new aerodromes and gliderdromes will be constructed during the second plan in pursuance of the general objective of providing aerodromes in the capitals of all States and in other important towns throughout the country. The programme of works at aerodromes includes construction of runways, taxi tracks, aprons, and hangars. It also provides for permanent ground lighting arrangements at a number of aerodromes and the construction of terminal buildings, freight sheds, other technical buildings and residential accommodation for the staff.
68. Schemes relating to the installation of telecommunication equipment, air routes and aerodromes equipment are drawn up on the assumption that of the total number of aerodromes expected to be under the control of the Civil Aviation Department by the end of the second plan period, at least 50 will have to be provided with permanent ground lighting installations to facilitate aircraft landing at night and that aerodrome beacons will have to be provided at about 74 aerodromes. In any programme for the installation of navigational and communication equipment, uncertainties arising out of rapid technical advances have to be reckoned with.
69. During the first five year plan, progress on the schemes relating to education and training has been relatively slow. Efficient air services demand high standards of training and equipment. In pursuance of the recommendations of a committee appointed by the Government, it has been decided to centralise training at Allahabad and to raise training standards for commercial pilots. Steps are also proposed to be taken to encourage gliding and to organise flying clubs on sound lines. It is proposed to establish 10 new gliding centres and 5 new Hying clubs during the plan period. Research facilities are to be extended and the plan provides for the procurement of additional equipment.
70. Air Corporations.Tine nationalisation of air services was completed in the first plan period and two air corporations, namely the Air India International and the Indian Airlines Corporations, were set up in August 1953. These Corporations have been engaged in consolidating their air services and strengthening their organisation. They have also undertaken some expansion programmes. The Indian Airlines with its existing fleet of 92 aircraft66 Dakolas^ 12 Vikings, 6 Skymasters and 8 Herons, links up most of the principal centres in the country, and its air routes cover a total mileage of 19,985. The Air India International with its fleet of 5 Super Constellations, 3 Constellations and 1 Dakota provides services reaching out to 15 countries and covering a total route mileage of 23,483. Against the initial provision of Rs. 9.5 crores in the first plan the actual outlay on the programme of the two Corporations is expected to be of the order of Rs. 15.3 crores.
71. A provision ofRs. 30.5 crores has been made in the second planRs. 16 crores for the Indian Airlines Corporation and Rs. 14.5 crores for Air India International. The main of expenditure are:
72. For Indian Airlines, provision is being made for modernisation of the fleet. The corporation had placed orders for 5 Viscounts during the first plan, and these arc expected to be delivered by the middle of 1957. Details of other aircraft to be ordered during the second plan are under examination. For Air India International, the programme provides for the purchase of a few turbo-prop or jet aircraft, both for meeting increased demands on the existing services and for providing additional services. In determining the expansion programme of air services, a number of factors have to be considered such as the types of aircraft to be purchased, operating costs, fare and freight structure, efficiency of organisation, elimination of losses, safety of services and (he need to link up all parts of the country 'through efficient air services.
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