|2nd Five Year Plan||
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The system of education has a determining influence on the rate at which economic progress is achieved and the benefits which can be derived from it Economic development naturally makes growing demands on human resources and in a democratic set-up it calls for values and attitudes in the building up of which the quality of education is an important element. The socialist pattern of society assumes widespread participation of the people in all activities and constructive leadership at various levels. In a period of intensive development, however, the resources to be allocated for education and the targets to be achieved are among the difficult issues which have to be faced in drawing up a plan of economic and social development. In recent years, there has been a great deal of re-examination of the pattern of education, and on several issues the opinion of educationists has crystallised into fairly specific proposals for change, as indicated in the recommendations of the University Education Commission, the Secondary Education Commission and a number of committees which have inquired into educational problems. The progress achieved in different branches of education has been reviewed by the Central and State Governments with a view to formulating programmes for the second five year plan. The main features of the programmes which have been drawn up are indicated in this chapter.
2. The second five year plan provides for a larger emphasis on basic education, expansion of elementary education, diversification of secondary education, improvement of standards of college and university education, extension of facilities for technical and vocational education and the implementation of social education and cultural development programmes. In the first five year plan about Rs. 169 crores were provided for the development of educationRs. 44 crores at the Centre and Rs. 125 crores in the States. In the second five year plan, Rs. 307 crores have been providedRs. 95 crores at the Centre and Rs. 212 crores in the States. The distribution of outlay between different fields of education in the first and second plans is set out below:
(Rs. in crores)
A proportion of the outlay provided for in the first plan related to the continuance of schemes of educational development which had been introduced prior to the plan; for the second plan, however, expenditure on educational institutions which have come into existence in the course of the first plan has been taken as committed expenditure and the plan outlay pertains to proposals for new institutions or for the expansion or development of existing ones. In addition to the provisions mentioned above, the allotment made in the second five year plan for national extension and community projects includes about Rs. 12 crores for general education and about Rs. 10 crores for social education. Programmes in different sectors of development, such as, agriculture, health, welfare of backward classes, rehabilitation of displaced persons and others, also provide considerable sums for the expansion of educational facilities.
3. In the summary statement given below the progress achieved in different fields of education during the first plan and the targets proposed for the second are set out The progress in each direction is reviewed separately in. the sections that follow.
4. The statement above suggests that the efforts made during the first plan and those envisaged in the second plan are by no means small. They have, however, to be seen against the background of the magnitude of the total problem. In several fields distinct advances have been made in recent years. Nevertheless, there are enormous tasks to be carried out For instance, a directive in the Constitution laid down that the State shall endeavour within a period of ten years from the commencement of the Constitution to provide free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years. The proportion of children in the age group 614 years at school has risen from 32 per cent. before the first plan to 40 per cent. at the end of the first plan and is likely to increase to 49 per cent only by the end of the second plan.
5. The problems of education at the elementary level are mainly two: the expansion of existing facilities and the reorientation of the system of education on basic lines. Both are equally urgent tasks and vital to social and economic development
6. As regards expansion, the progress made in the first plan and the targets set for the second, are indicated below:
It will be seen that the goal set in the Constitution about free, compulsory and universal education is yet far away. The statement above gives all-India figures, but the position varies considerably between States and, in many States die averages are much lower than those for all India. It is, however, necessary to make every possible effort to fulfil the directive of the Constitution within the next ten to fifteen years.
7. The problem of expanding eduction facilities is a complex one and its different aspects have to be considered. It will be seen that while the progress in regard to boys of the age-group 6-11 years is satisfactory, the advance in respect of boys of the age-group 11-14 years has been relatively meagre. In both the age-groups the education of girls has lagged far behind. An aspect of the situation which causes concern is the 'wastage' which exceeds 50 per cent. at the primary stage. Thus, out of 100 pupils who join the first class at school scarcely 50 reach the fourth class, the rest dropping out before completing four years at school,which is regarded as the minimum period for providing permanent literacy. The wastage is greater in the case of girls. Closely allied to the problem of wastage is that of stagnation, that is, a pupil continues in the same class for more than the normal period. The problems of expansion of educational facilities may differ considerably as between States and different parts of the same State. It is, therefore, necessary in each area to undertake detailed educational surveys to determine the measures needed. Such surveys are being initiated by the Ministry of Education in collaboration with State Governments. On a broad consideration of the facts certain general suggestions may be made for improving the situation.
8. To prevent wastage the introduction of compulsion is essential. Its enforcement may be easier if busy agricultural seasons coincide with school holidays as far as possible. Further, especially in rural conditions, effort should be made to give a practical bias to education.as far as possible. The principal remedy for stagnation lies in improving the quality of teachers and teaching techniques, including understanding of human relations and personality problems.
9. A most urgent problem is that of girls' education. Public opinion in every part of the country is not equally alive to the importance of girls' education. Special efforts at educating parents, combined with efforts to make education more closely related to the needs of girls, are needed. The situation in each area will need to be studied separately. Where there are difficulties in the acceptance of co-education, other methods will need to be explored. In some areas there may be no alternative to separate schools. In others, it may be possible to adopt a shift system as an interim measureone shift working for boys and the second for girls.
A major obstacle in the way of promoting girls education is the dearth of women teachers. In 1953-54 women teachers accounted for about 17 per cent. of the total number of teachers employed in primary and secondary schools. The task of training women teachers has to be approached as a matter of urgency, especially when it is remembered that in the third five year plan the problem of expanding primary education will to a large extent concern girls' education. The provision of housing facilities for women teachers in villages would be an important step to take. Opportunities for part-time employment may draw educated married women into the teaching profession.
10. In regard to children in the age-group 11-14 years who contribute to family income, continuation schools could help keep up the education of large numbers of children at schools.
11. There is also considerable need for making more effective use of available buildings and other facilities. In this connection the introduction of shift system in both basic and non-basic schools has been recommended by the Central Advisory Board of Education at their last meeting in 1956. This step will need to be accompanied by considerable propaganda for increasing enrolment in schools with a view to the gradual introduction of compulsion, which is necessary for taking full advantage of this scheme. The shift system has been tried only in Travancore-Cochin and Bombay, but for the rest of the country, it is a new experiment. It is suggested that it may be introduced, to begin with, in the first two classes only, and the experience gained should be reviewed at intervals. The shift system is recommended, not as an ideal method, but to meet certain practical difficulties. The reduced school hours will call for rationalisation of the curriculum and careful planning of work, both inside and outside the school.
12. As regards school buildings, it is inevitable that at the present stage austere standards should be adopted. Much of the work may be done out of doors, while the minimum covered accommodation needed is provided by the local community with some assistance from public authorities. Experiments in cheap designs for schools need to be carried out. The starting of a school in a village need not be contingent on certain prescribed standards being observed. A school could be started under whatever arrangements are immediately possible in a locality, and common buildings like village temples and 'panchayat ghars' could also be used. Once a school is actually functioning, the provision of a building can be taken in hand as soon as circumstances are favourable and local contributions are forthcoming.
13. If the directive of the Constitution in favour of free and compulsory education up to the age of 14 years is to be fulfilled. Government's resources will have to be supplemented in increasing measure by local community effort. In many countries the principal responsibility for providing elementary education rests with the local community. The State authorities encourage local effort by providing adequate grants-in-aid. Even in India for centuries the tradition was that most of the expenditure on education was met by the community. In recent years also local communities have come forward to make generous contributions in land, labour and money for the provision of school buildings. What is now required is, in addition, a contribution towards <,he cost of maintenance of schools, which will be steady and recurring, not merely sporadic or occasional. To enable local communities to shoulder in some measure the continuing responsibility which this implies, it is recommended that each State should consider enacting legislation to enable local authorities (including village panchayats), to levy a cess for education. The advantage of bringing in this cess as a local measure would be that the responsibility and initiative of individual communities would be specially stressed and the people would know that whatever they contributed would be used for their benefit A degree of flexibility in detail could be provided in the legislation, so that the example of communities which are progressive and forward-looking may stimulate others to similar action. The education cess could be related to appropriate State and local taxes such as land revenue, property taxes, etc., so as to enable different sections of the community to make their contribution.
14. The importance of basic education for a country which seeks to develop rapidly is now well recognised. In the first five year plan basic education programmes began to be implemented effectively for the first time. The progress made in basic education and the targets set for the second plan are indicated below:
The position varies considerably in different States. Taken as a whole, the relative advance seems fairly rapid, but considering that the whole of elementary education has to be reorientated on basic lines, the process has not advanced vary far yet. In 1950-51 the number of children going to basic schools accounted for less than 1 percent, of the total number of children in 'the elementary stage; the proportion increased to nearly 4 per cent by the end of first plan and is expected to rise to 11 per cent by 1960-61. There has been greater progress in providing facilities for training basic teachers. In order to prepare schools for conversion to the basic system, crafts and other student activities are being introduced in an increasing measure.
15. In the spread of basic education certain administrative problems have to be considered. On the administrative side, it is essential that those concerned with educational administration should be fully acquainted with the new programme and the conditions necessary for its fulfilment. Existing personnel should be trained. The aim should be that new entrants into educational services have had training in basic education. Administrative procedures will have to be revised so as to give the maximum initiative to the school and to the local community.
16. In organising training for basic teachers it is important to ensure the observance of high standards of teaching. Seminars, refresher courses and schemes of in-service training should also be organised. Further, post-graduate basic training colleges need to be affiliated to the universities so that those who are trained there are able to go up for higher professional training. Negotiation for the purpose with the various universities will need to be taken up. Production of literature for basic institutions and research in various problems affecting basic education are also essential. National Institute of Basic Education which has been established recently will give attention to these aspects.
17. In the spread of basic education a difficulty which often arises is its cost relatively to that of education in other elementary schools. On the basis of experience during recent years a few suggestions may not be out of place. In any new programme the need for economy is obvious. The productive aspect of basic education, consistent with the requirements of education has to be recognised and encouraged as an essential part of the scheme of basic education. From the limited experience available, it would appear that where reasonably satisfactory conditions have been provided, the results of basic education have been encouraging. There is, however, a consensus of opinion that the best results will be obtained with full-fledged eight-year basic schoolsor with a number of five-year basic schools feeding a central -eight-year schoolinstead of the five-year schools now common in most States. A number of measures calculated to improve attendance at school will need to be taken. In obtaining land and equipment for the school the contribution of the local community should be drawn upon to the maximum extent. Frequently, when agricultural holdings are consolidated or cooperative farming units formed or when land comes into the possession of the village community from any source, it should be possible to allot an area to the village school both for its activities and for providing it with a regular source of supplementary income. Special emphasis should be placed on the quality of the articles produced. This will also facilitate their disposal. Assistance of local co-operatives should be sought for disposing of surplus goods not consumed by the school or by the community. So far as possible students should participate in making the craft equipment.
The practical value of basic education and even its financial turn can be increased by linking it up with allied programmes like agriculture, village and small-industries, cooperation, development and national extension service, etc., and thereby giving a definite place to institutions imparting basic education in the scheme of development in each district and each block. This will itself help to keep basic education in step with the needs of development in other fields. To facilitate such coordination, advisory committees for basic education should include persons representing different branches of development work.
18. The village schools and specially those which are run on basic lines have an important role in community development Thus, new ideas worked out in the school pass into the life of the community through the normal contact of teachers with children. Villagers, who visit the local school and see good work being done there, pick up new suggestions. To enhance the value of the contribution which the school can make to the progress of the village community it is suggested that all senior basic schools should have a farm and a workshop attached to them. As a rule the people are willing to support such activities with generous contributions.
19. It will be clear from what has been said above that elementary education is an area of fundamental importance in which it will be necessary for a considerable period to experiment with new ideas, undertake pilot studies, evaluate results, and develop speedy methods of applying proven methods on a large-scale. Large innovations will be called for, for instance, in administrative procedures, recruitment rules, promotion methods, etc. To undertake these and other tasks referred to in this chapter, the Ministry of Education have under consideration a proposal to set up a Council for Basic and Elementary Education.
20. Problems of secondary education were reviewed by the Secondary Education Commission whose report was presented in 1953. The Commission considered the basic shortcomings of the present secondary schools and observed that the curricula now followed and the traditional mehods of teaching did not give students sufficient insight into the every day world in which they lived and failed to train the whole personality of the pupil. In the past excessive emphasis on the study of the English language led to neglect of many other subjects. With the increase in the size of classes the personal contact of teachers and students diminished and discipline and character were not sufficiently inculcated. While piecemeal reforms were introduced from time to time, there was need for new re-orientation in the system of secondary education as a whole. The Secondary Education Commission, therefore, made proposals for bringing about a greater diversity and comprehensiveness in educational courses and providing more comprehensive courses which would include both general and vocational subjects. They did not contemplate any artificial division between "general or'cultural" education and "practical" or "vocational" or "technical" education. In the new organisational pattern which the Commission recommended it was visualised that following the four or five year period of primary or junior basic education, there would be a middle or senior basic or junior secondary stage of three years and a higher secondary stage of four years. The first degree course would then be of three years duration. The Commission recommended the establishment of multipurpose schools, of technical schools either separately or as part of multi-purpose schools and of special facilities for agricultural education in rural schools. The provision in all secondary schools for courses in Languages, General Science, Social Studies and a Craft as a common core was also proposed for general adoption. These recommendations form the basis of programmes adopted by the Centre and the States for the second five year plan. A sound system of secondary education, which offers openings in a large number of different directions, is an essential foundation for economic development on modern lines. With the expansion of elementary education, an increasing. number of students will reach the secondary stage. Already partly because of the 'unilinear' character of secondary education in the past, the problem of unemployment has been accentuated among matriculates, arts colleges have tended to be overcrowded and often neither the community nor the individual profited adequately from the system.
21. Programmes in the second five year plan require for their implementation large numbers of skilled workers, technicians and specialists with a background of elementary or secondary education followed by technical and vocational training in specific vocations. Thus, the requirements of teachers, workers in national extension and community project areas, cooperative personnel, revenue administrators, technical and supervisory personnel in industry, agriculture and other fields of development have to be met mainly from the age group 1417 years. In this group, there is at present considerable wastage and mis-direction as may be seen from the fact that over 50per cent or more of the students who take matriculation or equivalent examinations fail to qualify. It is common ground that at the secondary stage of education, there should be increasing diversification of courses, so that students could be guided and directed to secure training in courses according to their aptitudes and capacities. This object is proposed to be attained through introduction of crafts and diversified courses, better facilities for science teaching, establishment of multipurpose schools and junior technical schools as well as upgrading of the high schools to higher secondary schools.
22. Steps to implement the pattern of re-organisation for secondary education recommended by the Secondary Education Commission have been initiated during the past two years. With the provision ofRs. 51 crores in the second plan as against Rs. 22 crores in the first, it is hoped that the reorientation of secondary education will be carried a stage further. Among other programmes, a proportion of the existing high schools are to be converted into higher secondary schools and multi-purpose schools. In the first plan about 250 multi-purpose schools were established; during the second plan the number of multi-purpose schools is to be increased to 1187. The number of high and higher secondary schools (which generally include middle classes) will increase from: 10,600 to 12,000 at the end of the second plan. About 1150 high schools are also expected to be converted into higher secondary schools over the period of the second plan, thus bringing the total number of higher secondary schools to about 2,800. In order to develop agriculture education at the secondary stage in rural areas, it is proposed to provide additional 200 agricultural courses in rural secondary schools. In the course of the second plan the numbers at school in the secondary stage will increase from 2.3 million to 3.1 million.
To enable students to enter an occupation at the end of the secondary course as semi-skilled workers or for setting up small businesses of their own, the second five year plan provides for the setting up of 90 junior technical schools. In these institutions general and technical education and workshop training will be provided for a period of three years to boys of the age-group 1417 years.
23. At the end of the first plan, about 60 per cent of the staff of secondary schools consisted of trained teachers. According to the plans of States in the next five years, the proportion of trained teachers is expected to increase to 68 per cent. The training of secondary teachers for vocational courses will need a great deal of attention. The teaching of crafts in elementary and secondary schools is one of the essential features in the reconstruction of the system of education, but progress in providing such courses is slow because of lack of trained teachers. The Ministry of Education have a programme for training 500 degree teachers and 1000 diploma teachers for multi-purpose and junior technical schools. Plans of States provide Rs. 46 crores for the reorientation of secondary education and include programmes for upgrading high schools into higher secondary schools, improving laboratories and libraries, training teachers and improving teaching standards, improving teachers' salaries and providing educational and vocational guidance.
24. At the secondary stage, the education of girls lags seriously behind. At present, out of the total population of 12 million girls in the age-group 1417 years, about 3 per cent are attending schools. Plans of States do not provide insufficient measure for the education of girls, for, the number of high schools for girls is expected to increase from 1,500 to 1,700 only by the end of the second plan. To enable girls to take up careers for which openings exist and are likely to increase (such as gram sevikas, nurses, health visitors, teachers, etc.) special scholarship schemes are recommended. Girls' education at this stage requires special encouragement.
25. A question at the secondary stage of education which is now being studied by a Committee of the Central Advisory Board of Education concerns the manner in which basic education and the scheme of reform for secondary education should be related to each other. The programme of conversion of primary into basic schools is already under way. As it proceeds, the senior basic and the middle school which represent the next stage, will come closer together in their methods and approach. It is being visualised that the senior basic stage should be followed by a post-basic stage. The number of institutions imparting post-basic training is still very smalt. On this account the Ministry of Education have made a financial provision for assisting the development of post basic schools. As the programme for the re-orientation of secondary education is carried out in the States, it would be desirable to devise ways of bringing about closer correlation between post-basic education and the structure of secondary education which is now being evolved.
26. With the re-organisation of the system of education, which is now in progress, at the secondary stage of education the study of Hindi and other regional languages assumes greater importance. In this connection, a question which has received attention is the provision of facilities for the study of Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas and for the study of languages Other than Hindi in Hindi-speaking areas. The main difficulty here is the lack of teachers trained in particular languages. To meet this deficiency the Ministry of Education have provided funds for providing Hindi teachers in secondary schools in non-Hindi speaking areas and teachers in languages other than Hindi in secondary schools in Hindi-speaking areas.
27. During recent years the rapid increase in the number of students in universities and colleges has affected the standards of education. At the end of the first plan the total enrolment is estimated to be 720,000 as compared to 420,000 five years ago. The number of students qualifying each year in degree and higher examinations in arts and science has risen during this period from 41,000 to 58,000. For improving the quality of university and college education and for reducing wastage and stagnation, of students who are unable to qualify, a number of measures are being taken by the University Grants Commission. These include the institution of three-year degree courses, organisation of tutorials and seminars, improvement of buildings, laboratories and libraries, provision of hostel facilities, stipends for meritorious students, scholarships for research and increase in salaries of university teachers. In the course of the second five year plan, seven new universities are to be established.
28. There are a number of important problems affecting university education which are being considered. Two of these may be specially mentioned. The introduction of diversified courses at the secondary level may succeed to some extent in checking the rush of students to Arts colleges. The question whether and to what extent possession of degrees can be dispensed with for the purpose of recruitment to public services has been under examination by a committee appointed by the Central Government. Affiliated colleges, in many of which the prevailing standards are unsatisfactory, constitute another problem which is now receiving attention. It is essential that by action at the secondary as well as at the university stages and through appropriate changes in the conditions and methods of recruitment to public services, university education should acquire greater purpose and direction and fit more closely into plans of economic and social development.
29. The total provision for university education in the second five year plan is about Rs. 57 crores, of which Rs. 22.5 crores are provided in the State plans and Rs. 34.4 crores at the Centre, the latter provision including an allotment ofRs. 27 crores for the University Grants Commission. The greater part^ of the expenditure will be on consolidation and increased provision for technical and scientific education in the universities. In addition to this, the programme of technical education provides Rs. 13 crores for engineering and technology at the university and higher stages and Rs. 10 crores for scholarships. Further, Rs. 4.6 crores have been provided for agricultural education and Rs. 10 crores for health education at the university and higher stages under programmes in these fields, besides Rs. 20 crores provided for scientific and industrial research in the programme of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and other associated programmes.
30. In each sector of development technical personnel are needed in rapidly increasing numbers. Steps which are proposed to be taken to augment the existing training facilities for doctors, agricultural and veterinary specialists, and others have been explained in the appropriate chapters. Despite the advance made in the first plan, the requirements for engineering and technological personnel will be on a scale exceeding the capacity of existing institutions. This is the main problem in the development of technical education in the second plan.
31. In the field of technical education long-term planning has to be undertaken. During the first five year plan significant progress was made in developing technical education. The Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, was established as the first of the four higher technological institutes recommended by the All India Council for Technical Education, a few years ago. The Institute has been planned ultimately to provide under-graduate courses for 1200 students, postgraduate courses and research for 600 students. It offers facilities for training in a wide range of subjects, some of which for instance. Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Fuel and Combustion Engineering, Production Technology, Mechanical Handling of Materials, Agriculural Engineering, Geophysics, Town and Regional planning and Architecture are designed to requirements for technical personnel which are relatively new. The Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, has been developed for technological studies and research in Aeronautical Engineering, Power Engineering, Internal Combustion Engineering, Metallurgy and Electrical Communication Engineering. A large number of technical institutions all over the country have been developed for degree and diploma courses; and new institutions, have been established to meet the needs of different States. The following statement summaries the position of technical education at the beginning and end of the first plan.
ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
32. It will be seen that admissions to institutions and the out-turn of graduates and diploma holders show a 50 per cent increase since 1949-50; compared to the position in 1947 the increase has been as much as three-fold. On the basis of the present admissions an outturn of 4600 graduates and 5220 diploma holders is expected from 1958-59 onwards. These numbers represent a doubling of the output figures of 1950. Besides expansion in numbers, qualitative improvement of the standards of instructions has also been kept in view. The crux of the problem of quality in education is better staff, better equipment and better accommodation in the technical institutions. The All-India Council for Technical Education and its Regional Committees have carried out comprehensive studies of the state of various institutions in the country, their deficiencies, courses offered, standards and the improvements needed. On the basis of the reports of the Council, the Central Government has given substantial grants to individual institutions.
33. Particular attention has been given to the development of facilities in special fields. A scheme of Management Education and Training, covering Industrial Engineering, Industrial Administration and Business Management, has been implemented in seven selected centres and a Board of Management Studies has been set up for bringing about coordinated development of facilities for training in.these subjects in association with industry and commerce. Proposals for the establishment of an Administrative Staff College at Hyderabad and an organisation for the promotion of Scientific Management are in an advanced stage. Four Regional Schools of Printing are being established at Madras, Calcutta, Bombay and Allahabad, and a fifth is planned for Delhi. A School of Town and Country Planning is being established in Delhi in association with the Institute of Town Plarf-ners. A scheme for giving interest-free loans to institutions for the construction of hostels for students has also been implemented. On completion this will provide hostel accommodation for about 7000 students. Over 500 research scholarships ofRs. 200 per mensem have been instituted for students who wish to undertake research in science, engineering or technology. A scheme for research fellowships for encouraging advanced, scientific research has also been introduced.
34. Despite the steps taken during the first year plan, on account of the large demand for technical personnel which will arise in the coming years, considerable expansion of technical education is now imperative.During past two or three years increasing attention has been given to planning for manpower. Generally, it mil be beyond the capacity of the majority of existing institutions to admit a much larger number of students for training than they do at present and at the same time maintain proper standards.
In the second five year plan, a provision of about Rs. 48 crores has been made for technical education. Part of this provision is for completing schemes initiated during the first plan, the rest being earmarked for the establishment of new institutions and courses. In the course of the second plan the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur will be fully developed for under-graduate and post-graduate studies. Postgraduate courses and research in engineering and technology at other selected centres will also be organised. The scheme relating to the improvement of existing institutions for first degree and diploma courses initiated a few years ago will be completed.
New schemes to be undertaken in the second plan include Higher Technological Institutes established in a phased programme of these in the Western, Northern and Southern Regions in the country. Two of these will be located at Bombay and Kanpur; the location of the third Institute is under consideration. Each Institute when fully developed will provide for a total student-body of 1200 for under-graduate courses and 600 for post-graduate courses and research.
35. Training facilities at the Delhi Polytechnic are to be expanded in respect of a wide range of subjects. For the provision of adequate facilities for the first degree and diploma courses in engineering and technology in different parts of the country, 9 institutions of the degree level and 21 institutions of the diploma level are proposed to be established. A scheme for training foremen which provides for periods of training alternating with periods of work is to be implemented in cooperation with industry. Reference has already been made to the programme for opening 90 junior technical schools. For the qualitative improvement of technical education at all levels, refresher and other courses for technical teachers are proposed to be organised. The number of scholarships will be increased from 633 to 800, and substantial provision has been made for scholarships and free places for technical studies. Additional hostel accommodation for about 13,000 technical students and 3,300 students in junior technical schools will be constructed. A Central Institute for Printing Technology has also been planned and the Indian Schoolof Mines and.Applied Geology, Dhanbad, will be expanded to provide additional facilities for training in Mining Engineering and related fields. As a result of the development programmes described above admissions to technical courses at different levels will increase as shown below:
These figures represent a total annual out-turn of graduates and diploma holders after 1960-61 of about 5700 and 6800 respectively, that is, twice as many graduates and three times as many diploma-holders as at the end of the first plan.
36. Whether the increase in training facilities proposed above will prove sufficient has been examined by the Engineering Personnel Committee set up by the Planning Commission whose recommendations have been recently received. The conclusion reached by the Committee is that even with the expansion of facilities for engineering education proposed in the second plan, it would be necessary to provide for additional training facilities for additional engineering graduates for service in civil, mechanical, electrical, telecommunication, metallurgical and mining engineering fields and 6225 diploma-holders in civil mechanical and electrical engineering fields. Unless special measures are taken, the shortage of personnel are likely to be intensified in the later years of the second plan and in the third plan. The Committee has recommended that the capacity of existing institutions should be increased by 20 per cent for graduate training and by 25 per cent for the training of diploma holders. It has also suggested that steps should be taken to establish 18 more engineering colleges and 62 more engineering schools in different parts of the country. These suggestions, which will involve a total outlay of about Rs. 10 crores, are under consideration.
37. Increasing demands for skilled workers and foremen and other supervisory personnel will need to be met during the second plan. The Ministry of Labour has a programme for increasing the output of craftsmen by about 20,000 per annum and two institutions are being set up for training craft instructors. Apprenticeship training facilities have to be developed on a larger scale and in this field an important duty is cast upon the managements of the better organised enterprises in the private sector as well as on public enterprises. The Ministry of Iron and Steel has set up a directorate of training to coordinate the personnel requirements of steel plants and to arrange for the necessary training facilities. In view of the large programme which it has to undertake, the Ministry of Railways also proposes to establish a number of new technical schools.
38. The census of 1951 showed that only 16.6 per cent of the population were literate and even if children below 10 years are excluded the proportion rises to 20 per cent. only. Apart from the low percentage of literacy there is serious disparity in literacy between men (24.9 per cent) and women (7.9 per cent) and between the urban population (34.6 per cent) and the rural population (12.1 per cent). Rapid social and economic progress along democratic lines and widespread illiteracy are scarcely compatible with each other.
39. As essential reforms proposed in the system of education are carried out, facilities for continuation classes and social education classes at various levels should be developed. Plans of States provide for the opening of literacy and social education centres, training of social education workers and organisers, libraries, publication of literature, au,dio;visual education and establishment ofJanata colleges. The total allotment in the plan for social education is about Rs. 15 crores, including about Rs. 10 crores in the national extension and community development programme. The Ministry of Education propose to establish a fundamental education centre for training social education organisers and for continuing study and research in problems relating to social and basic education.
While literacy is undoubtedly important, it should be recognised that it is one element in a wider concept of social education. Social education embodies a comprehensive approach to the solution of the problems of the community, primarily through community action. Besides literacy, it includes health, recreation and home life, economic activities and citizenship training. The entire national extension and community development programme, social welfare extension projects, rural programmes undertaken by Government agencies in cooperation with the people, programmes of voluntary organisations like the Sarva Seva Sangh, the Bharat Sevak Samaj and others, the cooperative movement, village panchayats etc. are all facets of the nation-wide effort towards social education and rural improvement which is now in progress in the country. From this aspect the range of social education work is not to be judged merely by the financial provisions made specifically under this description. However, as an organised and systematic activity directed to specific purposes, social education is a new field of work. A large number of development agencies are engaged in some form of other of social education. Their work has to be supplemented by suitable specialised agencies. The beginning made in this direction in national extension and community project areas has, therefore, much significance. A period of careful evaluation will help to determine the nature of specialised agencies and methods and techniques needed in this field, both in rural and in urban areas.
HIGHER RURAL EDUCATION
40. A number of far-reaching proposals for the development of rural education at the higher levels were made by the University Education Commission which reported a few years ago. The subject has been examined afresh recently by the Higher Rural Education Committee which recommended the establishment of Rural Institutes. These institutes are intended to perform a variety of functions for the .rural community and, more especially to provide (a) facilities for higher studies to students who complete their post-basic or higher secondary courses, (b) certificate courses in subjects such as rural hygiene, agriculture and rural engineering and also shorter courses, and (c) comprehensive teaching-cum-research-cum extension programmes. It is visualised that Rural Institutes will function as cultural and training centres and as centres for development planning in rural areas. The Ministry of Education propose to establish 10 Rural Institutes yi the second five year plan and have made a provision of Rs. 2 crores for this purpose. For locating these Institutes leading centres already engaged in rural work have been selected. For following up the programme the Central Government have recently constituted a Council for Rural higher Education.
41. At all times the teacher is the pivot in the system of education. This is specially the case in a period of basic change and re-orientation. There is general agreement that the teaching profession fails to attract a sufficient number of persons who adopt teaching as a vocation and that far too many persons work as teachers for short periods and then move on to other occupations. Improvement in the conditions of teachers is, therefore, an important desideratum of progress in education. Measures which are necessary, whether by way of better training or better salaries and conditions of service, may be held back because of the large number of teachers involved in any reform. Thus, the number.of teachers has risen from 7.3 lakhs before the first plan to 10.24 lakhs in 1955-56 and is expected to increase-to 13.56 lakhs in 1960-61.
42. Before the first five year plan 59 per cent of teachers in pripiary schools and 54 per cent of teachers in secondary schools were trained teachers. These proportions have risen to 64 and 56 per cent respectively by the end of the first plan. In the second plan Rs. 17 crores have been provided for increasing training facilities for teachers and, besides expanding existing institutions, it is proposed to establish 231 training schools and 30 training colleges. At the end of the second plan it is expected that the proportio'n of trained teachers will increase to 79 and 68 per cent in primary schools and secondary schools respectively. The number of basic training colleges is to be increased from 33 to 71 and basic training schools from 449 to 729. A National Institute of Basic Education is also being established as a research centre.
43. The question of improving the salaries of teachers has been under consideration for some time past. It is generally recognised that the provision of satisfactory services for teachers is a measure essential for the effective reorganisation of the system of education. In many states steps to improve teachers' salaries have been taken during the past few years. In the nature of things teachers' salaries have to be fixed at levels consistent with the local pay structure, at which suitably qualified persons can be attracted and retained in the teaching profession. The problem in different States is, therefore, by no means identical. While recognising the importance of the question of improving salary scales of teachers, the Central Government have taken the view that responsibility for meeting additional expenditure on this account belongs to State Governments. As a temporary measure, until the next Finance Commission makes its proposals, the Central Government have, however, agreed to assist States to the extent of 50 per cent of additional expenditure which may be involved in raising salary scales of primary teachers suitably consistent with local conditions. They have further suggested that in order to meet the additonal cost involved in raising the salary scales of primary teachers. States should explore the possibility of reducing expenditure as far as they can on the construction of school buildings. They have also proposed that a special educational cess may be levied by States to enable them to meet expenditure on the improvement of salary scales.
44. As regards conditions of service, the fact that teachers are employed by various authorities, such as State Governments, Municipalities, District Boards and private bodies, is an important element in variations in salaries, standards, working conditions and prospects of teachers which may be found within the same State. It is recommended that each State may consider bringing elementary school teachers in the State into its own service in appropriate cadres. When the services of teachers are placed at the disposal of local bodies or of private institutions, according to the cadres to which they belong, their terms of appointment would be maintained. This would enable State Governments to extend to teachers adequate benefits of security, pension, provident fund contributions, promotion and opportunities to qualify for higher grades and also provide them appropriate amenities.
45. With a view to providing greater equality ot opportunity in the field of education and making available educational facilities to deserving students, a number of scholarship schemes were introduced during the first plan. About Rs. 12 crores for scholarships are being provided in the second five year plan; these are besides continuing schemes for scholarships which do not form part of the plan. Scholarships are provided, amongst others, for students from scheduled tribes, scheduled castes and other backward classes. The programme also includes post-matriculation scholarships, -research scholarships, overseas scholarships and cultural scholarships for Asian, African and other foreign students for study in India.
46. The main categories of scholarships provided are as follows :
47. Stipends for vocational and industrial education liave been included in schemes sponsored by the Labour and Industries Departments in the States and by the Ministry of Labour at the Centre. Stipends for higher scientific and technological research are given by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Scientific Research, for agricultural research by the Ministry of Agriculture, and for medical research by the Ministry of Health. It would be correct to say that under the second plan a fair proportion of students, with ability and aptitude, who wish to undertake higher studies and research, will be able to do so with practical support from the State.
CULTURAL AND OTHER PROGRAMMES
48. The Ministry of Education have a number of important programmes of value for cultural development and integration which may be briefly stated.
(a) The plan provides for the development of Hindi and of regional languages. The programme relating to Hindi includes the preparation of a Hindi Encyclopaedia, standard text-books and elementary readers, grants to organisations engaged in the study and development of the Hindi language, and scholarships for higher studies in Hindi to candidates from non-Hindi speaking areas. Besides provisions at the Centre, State plans include schemes for the development of regional languages and also provide for the dissemination of the Hindi language. The Akadami of Letters will also have schemes for developing the various languages and literatures of the country. A National Book Trust is being constituted for promoting the publication of good books in all languages at low prices through Indian publishers with a view to making them available on as large a scale as possible. A beginning in this direction has been made through the setting up of the South India Book Trust. The plan also provides for the establishment of a Sanskrit University at Kurukshetra and Banaras, and it is proposed to appoint a Commission to enquire into the present state of Sanskrit education in the country and to suggest measures fdr its further development
(b) For the development of arts, the Akadami of Letters, the Akadami of Dance, Drama and Mu^ic and the Akadami of Fine Arts have programmes for which provision is made in the plan. The plan provides for the construction of a building for the National Theatre, for re-organisation and development of museums including a National Children's Museum, development of the National Gallery of Modem Art, establishment of a Bal Bhavan (children's centre), for development of the National Library, Calcutta, establishment of a Central Reference Library in Delhi and the publication of a National Bibliography.
(c) Provision has been made for the development of the Department of Archaeology, the National Archives of India and the Department of Anthropology. A Central Institute of Indology is also to be established. Gazetteers for various States and districts are to be revised. Work on the preparation of the History of the Freedom Movement is to be completed during the plan period.
(d) The plan provides for the Research Centre for Southern Asia on the Social Implications of Industrialisation which has been recently established by UNESCO in co-operation with the Government of India.
49. Our survey of programmes of education during the second five year plan has shown that in every field tasks of great significance for the future of the nation have to be accomplished. If larger resources can be made available for education by public authorities as well as by each local community, greater progress can be achieved and goals, which still seem distant, can be reached earlier. For economic development to make its full contribution to the well-being of the mass of the people programmes of education should be ahead of economic plans. Means must, therefore, be found to overcome current limitations upon efforts in the field of education. The problem of re-organisation of the system of education may be viewed as comprising a series of practical objectives, such as expansion in the numbers for whom educational facilities are available, provision of larger opportunities for girls and for women generally, diversification of education at the secondary stage, replacement of the traditional primary education by education along basic lines, development of social education, adequate provision for technical and vocational education, and improvement of education in the universities. Behind these tasks lie more fundamental aims. With so much lost ground to recover, to advance rapidly the nation needs unity, co-operation in all fields, and a high spirit of endeavour. Modem economic development calls for a wide diffusion of the scientific temper of mind, a sense of dignity in labour and discipline in service, and a readiness to adapt new techniques and new knowledge to the needs of the people. These values and attitudes will be realised in every day life in the measure in -which they are expressed through educational ideals and practice.
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