3rd Five Year Plan
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Chapter 21:

The need for expanding the production of supplementary and subsidiary foods, especially proteins, has been increasingly realised in recent years. The demand for these articles has speedily increased and, with rise in incomes, is likely to increase even more rapidly in the future. The prospects of augmenting the supply of milk and milk products, table birds, eggs and meat depend ultimately on progress in the development of animal husbandry. In the development of fisheries significant results have already been achieved, but still a vast potential remains to be tapped.


2. Development of animal husbandry is envisaged as an integral part of a sound system of diversified agriculture. Emphasis will be laid on mixed farming, a system in which crop production and animal husbandry are dovetailed for efficient and economic utilisation of land, labour and capital. The integration of farming with animal husbandry is essential for the fuller utilisation of farm bye-products, maintenance of soil fertility, fuller employment for agriculturists throughout the year and increase in rural incomes.

3. According to the 1956 Livestock Census, there were 306 million farm animals. Of these, cattle numbered about 159 million and buffaloes about 45 million, constituting together a fourth of the world's bovine population. There were, in additon, 39 mllion sheep, 55 million goats, 8 million other animals and 95 million poultry. The productivity of India's livestock is generally low. Although high individual yields of milk are realised in some breeds of cattle and there is evidence of a slight increase, India's average yields continue to be extremely small. Thus, the average milk yield per lactation of cows is in the neighbourhood of 400 Ib. and of buffaloes a little about 1100 Ib. compared to about 5,000 Ib. or more in advanced western countries. The total production of milk which was estimated at about 17 million tons in 1951 and at about 19 million tons in 1956, is at present reckoned at about 22 million tons. By the end of the Third Plan it is expected to go up to about 25 million tons. Statistics of milk consumption are far from satisfactory. The average per capita consumption of milk, including milk products, was estimated in 1951 to be 4.76 oz per day and is now placed at about 4.9 oz per day. There were wide variations between States, consumption in Punjab, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh being at relatively higher levels than in other parts of the country. At the end of the Third Plan, the per capita consumption is expected to rise to 5.1 oz per day. For a balanced diet, the minimum requirement is considered to be about 10 oz per day, so that the levels of consumption at present visualised are wholly inadequate.


4. During the First Plan among the animal husbandry programmes undertaken were the establishment of 146 key village blocks with artificial insemination centres and 25 gosadans. A pilot scheme for the eradication of rinderpest was also initiated. During the Second Plan 196 new key village blocks were taken up and 114 key village blocks established in the First Plan were expanded. Key village blocks set up in the First Plan comprised 4 separate units and those set up in the Second Plan included 6 units. In all, by the end of the Second Plan about 2,000 key village units were established. By 1960, 670 artificial insemination centres had been set up. During the Second Plan 34 more gosadans were established and 246 goshalas were selected for development. By the end of Second Plan about 4,000 veterinary hospitals and dispensaries had been established of which, 650 were set up during the First Plan and about 1900 during the Second Plan. In the Second Plan the gosadan scheme was modified so as to allow for the setting up of gosadans both by State Governments and by private institutions. With a view to reducing losses, it was proposed that charmalayas should be provided at gosadans with equipment and machinery for flaying and curing of hides and utilisation of carcasses. The total Plan outlay on animal husbandry in the First Plan was Rs. 8 crores and in the Second about Rs. 21 crores.


5. Development of animal husbandry during the first two Plans suffered under several limitations. Some of these were of a continuing nature, such as the large proportion of uneconomic and surplus cattle, deficient nutrition and shortage of breeding bulls. A proportion of the key village blocks were located in "nondescript" areas, outside the established breeding tracts. There was also shortage of trained personnel in several States. In the Third Plan, which provides about Rs. 54 crores for animal husbandry, the key village programme is being reorganised so as to provide for about 10 units in each block and establishment of central artificial insemination centres. The programme for rinderpest is to be intensified and a large castration programme is proposed to be taken up.

6. Breeding.—As was stated in the Second Plan. there are 25 well-defined breeds of cattle and 6 well-defined breeds of buffaloes in India. These are distributed in different parts of the country' Each breed of cattle has a limited number of high class specimens. A few of the breeds are of the dairy type, in which the females yield a large quantity of milk, while the bullocks are not of high quality. A large majority of the breeds, however, are of the draught type. in which the cows are poor milkers, but the bullocks are superior in quality. In between, there are a number of breeds which may be described as "dual purpose", in which the females yield more than an average quantity of milk, while the males are good working bullocks. These well-defined breeds are found in the dry parts of the country. Outside these areas, over large parts of the country, specially in the east and the south, the cattle are "non-descript" and do not belong to any denned breed. The all-India breeding policy drawn up by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and accepted by the Central and State Governments envisages that in the case of well-defined milch breeds the milking capacity should be developed to the maximum by selective breeding and the male progeny should be used for the development of 'non-descript' cattle. In the case of well-defined draught breeds, the aim is to put as much milk into them as possible without materially impairing their quality for work. The breeding policy is, thus. to evolve and develop "dual purpose" breeds, which will provide both good bullocks for efficient cultivation and increased quantities of milk for human consumption. Besides pursuing these objectives during the Third Plan, as an experimental measure, it is proposed to undertake cross-breeding with exotic breeds in regions of high altitude which have heavy rainfall. To meet the requirements of imported stock. it is proposed to set up a farm for manitaining a nuakus herd of Jersey animals.

7. The key village scheme, which has been the main programme for intensive cattle development during the first two Plans, has been recently re-examined by an expert committee. The committee has suggested that State Governments should review the operation of the key village blocks with a view to improving their working and closing down such of the blocks as have not produced satisfactory results. To overcome the shortage of high class bulls, it has been recommended that State Governments should formulate well-considered purchase programmes, and progeny testing programmes should be taken up at Government farms as well as at private farms where the necessary facilities exist or can be provided. To achieve satisfactory breeding control in the key village areas, it is proposed that the castration programme should be intensified and propaganda undertaken in favour of early castration of maies. It is also proposed that the programme for the rearing of bull calves in the key village areas should be expaned. The committee has drawn attention to the fact that the feed and fodder development programme associated with the key villtage programme has not made satisfatory progress. To remove this defect, the committee has made a number of recommendations, including better use of the existing fodder resources, control of grazing where pastures have been developed, cultivation of fodder crops on marginal and sub-marginal lands, introduction of suitable leguminous crops in rotation with paddy, construction of silo pits and popularisation among farmers of cultivation of pasture grasses and feeding of balanced rations. The need to organise the marketing of livestock and livestock products through co-operative marketing societies of cattle-owners has been stressed. The committee has also made n number of proposals for improving existing arrangements concerning artificial insemination.

8. A scheme for the progeny testing of bulk required for key village areas and cattle farms was initiated during the Second Plan with the Hariana breed of cattle and the Murrah breed of buffalo. Eventually, it is proposed that such progeny testing scheme should be introduced for each of the important breeds. The scheme is being extended to the Ongole breed in Andhra Pradesh and the Kankrej breed in Gujarat.

9. Registration of cattle conforming to certain prescribed standards is an important means for securing cattle improvement. It is proposed that in the main breeding tracts cultivators should be encouraged to form breeding societies which will provide for registration of cattle and recording of milk yields and will serve as a source of supply of breeding bulls required for other areas. During the Third Plan, this scheme will concentrate on the Hariana, Gir and Ongole breeds of cattle and the Murrah breed of buffaloes.

10. The shortage of breeding bulls has been one of the principal handicaps in implementing animal husbandry programmes. To overcome this difficulty, the use of artificial insemination is being rapidly extended. There are at present 125 Government cattle breeding farms, but the total production of bulls is in the neighbourhood of about 5000, which is but a fraction of the numbers actually needed. The Th'rd Plan provides for the setting up of 11 bull-rearing farms in the breeding tracts. It also provides for subsidising the rearing of about 30,000 bull calves. This scheme can be considerably expanded if adequate facilities are made available to village panchayats and to cattle-breeding cooperatives. It is also proposed to expand the herds at 33 existing Government cattle breeding farms and improve their management,, so that they can produce a larger number of superior bulls. A number of new livestock farms are also to be established. In the hill areas, livestock development has generally lagged behind. These areas, however/ offer scope for cross-breeding with exotic breeds. It is proposed to estabi'sh an exotic breeding farm for producing bulls for the development of hill cattle. A difficult problem in the major breeding areas is presented by continuing exports of high-yielding animals to large cities, where they are discarded after one or two lactation periods. Measures are being devised for preventing this national loss.

11. Feeding and nutrition.—Increase in numbers accompanied by inadequate feeding and deficiencies in nutrition are responsible to a large extent for deterioration in the quality of livestock. Development of grazing areas, increased production of fodder, improved arrangements for preserving it and better utilisation of agricultural' by-products are, therefore, important aspects of animal husbandry development Among the measures proposed in the Third Plan are work on forage improvement at livestock farms, establishment of forage demonstration plots in villages, distribution of planting materials, conservation of surplus fodder through ensilaging. feeding of selected cattle on balanced rations, adoption of improved cultural practices and establishment of fodder demonstration-cum-training centres. In periods of scarcity fodder banks have considerable value. One such bank was established during the Second Plan. It is proposed to set up two more fodder banks during the Third Plan. It is also proposed to set up a Forage and Grassland Research Institute. Suitable areas will be selected for the development of mixed farming, preference being given to river valley areas and others in which successful livestock development has already taken place. In these areas, fodder and leguminous forage crops will be grown in rotation with food and cash crops, financial assistance will be given for the purchase of 'dual purpose' cattle of high quality, and forage seed farms as well as demonstration centres will be set up.

12. Surplus Cattle.—The seriousness of the problem of surplus and uneconomic cattle is widely recognised, although estimates of the numbers of such cattle vary. As was pointed out in ths Second Plan, large numbers lead to poor feeding and poor feeding comes in the way of attempts to raise productivity. Weeding of inferior stock is a necessary complement to a programme of cattle improvement and systematic breeding. The gosadan scheme, which was worked out by the Cattle Preservation and Development Committee in 1948, was introduced as a partial answer to this problem. The scheme envisages segregation of useless cattle so as to avoid their further multiplication and the resultant damage to crops. Over the past ten years 59 gosadans have been established, 25 during the First Plan and 34 during the Second Plan. In the Third PDan. it is proposed to set up 23 more gosadans. In its very nature, the programme for establishing gosadans presents certain difficulties, the most important of these being the non-availab^ity of suitable sites in the interior of forest areas where the necessary grazing facilities are available. The scheme has been modified from time to time with a view to making gosadans a more economic proposition. In this connection, the need for providing facildries for the full utilisation of hides, bones, horns, etc. has been stressed and attempts have been made to reduce overhead costs.

An aspect of the problem of surplus cattfe is the menace of wild and stray animals. During the Second Plan, a scheme for catching, taming and disposing of wild and stray cattle was initiated as part of the gosadan programme. The scheme is in operation in Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.

Having regard to the size of the problem of surplus cattle and its special features, with a view to elimination of scrub male stock, it is proposed to undertake a large-scale programme of castration during the Third Plan. The programme envisages that mass castration work will be initiated first in areas in which intensive livestock development programmes have been taken up and will be later extended to other areas.

13. Extension of veterinary facilities and disease control.—In the course of the Third Plan the number of veterinary hospitals and dispensaries is expected to increase to 8000 and every development block willi have at least one such hospital or dispensary. There will also be increased production of vaccines and sera required for the control of contagious diseases. Under the programme for eradication of rinderpest carried out during the Second Plan, about 90 million heads of cattle have been protected, leaving a balance of about 41 million cattlb. It ;'s expected that by 1963-64, the entire bovine population of the country will have been vaccinated. It is proposed to undertake a "follow up" programme to set up immune belts along the border and to establish 10 more quarantine stations at important points of entry of animals, bringing the total number to 28.

14. Piggery Development.—Piggery products provide cheaper animalf proteins and are important for improving the nutritional requirements. Bristles as by-products are valuable export commodities. In the Second Plan 13 piggery breeding units for the production of breeding boars for use in piggery development blocks were sst up. With a view to utilising breeding materials from these units 28 piggery development blocks were also established. In addition, two regional pig-breeding stations-cum-bacon factories were established at Aligarh in Uttar Pradesh and at Haringhata in West Bengal. The Third Plan provides for piggery development on a larger scale. It is proposed to establish two regional breeding-cum-bacon factories, 12 pig-eery units and 140 piggery development blocks. Intensive development in this industry can make a material contribution towards raising the economic levels of several groups among the weaker sections of the village community.

15. Equine Breeding.—Before partition, the requirements of the armed forces for horses, mules, etc. were met. for the most part from special breeding schemes sponsored by the Government in the canal colonies, and were also supplemented to some extent by imports from abroad. Despite progress in mechanisation, there is still a considerable demand for horses and mules for mountain artillery, animal transport companies and for pack transport etc'. for use in the mountainous regions. These requirements, together with those of the PoAice, are being met from the 'unbound' system still prevailing in some districts of Uttar Pradesh and Punjab and partly through imports.

The policy of preserving the existing breeds and the objective of establishing a breed of Indian horses have resulted in evolving the 'Indian Thoroughbred' which has good speed, stamina, patience, persistence and easy gait, and is now in considerable demand by the turf clubs, Except Kathiawari and Marwari breeds, no serious attempts have been made to improve other breeds such as Bhutia, Manipuri, Spiti and Shahabadi etc. No systematic efforts were made for improving and developing the breeds of horses during the First and Second Plans. During the Third Plan a horse-breeding farm will be established and will maintain 48 mares and 2 stations and 20 donkeys and 5 donkey stallions. The farm will produce 12 horse stallions and 6 donkey stallions every year. This stock will be located at 10 selected stud centres for the improvement of local breeds. It has also been agreed to import a limited number of horses for the next four years» Other aspects of the programme for horse-breeding, such as the establishment of a national) stud, co-operative breeding schemes and the proposal for more private studs are under examination.

16. Sheep and Wool Development.—Of the 72 million Ib. of wool produced in the country, about one-half is exported as carpet wool, while 15 to 17 milUon Ib. of semi-processed wool is imported. In 1959-60 the export of wool and of sheep and sheep products contributed Rs. 26.6 crores in foreign exchange, while the cost of imported woolf amounted to Rs. 8.8 crores. The export value of sheep and sheep products is estimated to increase to about Rs. 35 crores by / the end of the Third Plan. During the Second Plan 4 sheep breeding farms for the production of superior rams were started. Rams were distributed to 305 sheep and wool extension centres in the established breeding tracts for the improvement of local stock. In addition to providing breeding facilities these centres also demonstrate improved methods of shearing, grading and marketing. In the Third Plan 15 sheep breeding farms will be established and 17 farms expanded. In all 2000 to 2500 quality rams will be supplied from these farms to flock owners in the rural areas. As a result of various measures, the production of wool by the end of the Third Plan is expected to go up to about 90 million Ib. In view of the greater demand by indigenous industry for quality wools, a large programme for correct shearing as well as systematic grading is to be taken up in Rajasthan. The plans of some States provide for loans for the introduction of sheep with a view to the development of mixed farming.

17. Poultry Development.—Together with piggery, poultry has employment potentialities both in the rural and urban areas, particularly for the weaker sections of the community. However, the poultry industry in India is essentially a cottage industry without being linked with commercial hatcheries, commercial feed industry and organised marketing of poultry products. During the Second Pflan 5 regional poultry farms were established and equipped for the production of superior birds for breeding purposes. These regional farms distributed chicks to State poultry farms, extension centres and poultry breeders. During the Second Plan 269 poultry extension centres were also established. The Third Plan provides for the expansion of 60 State poultry farms, 3 regional poultry farms and 50 extension-cum-development centres. Each pout-try development centre has also a demonstration unit of 100 birds, with an egg defertilisation unit for demonstrating modem methods of poultry keeping to the farmers. Commercial hatcheries will be set up in these centres. It is expected that as a result of these measures the annual average egg production will go up from 60 to 70 eggs per hen. Two regional duck breeding farms, 17 duck extension centres, one egg powder factory and 15 centres for the manufacture of poultry feeds are also proposed to be established.

18. Marketing.—In the interest of breeding good qualflty livestock, it is essential to improve the existing arrangements for the marketing of livestock and livestock products. This is an aspect of development which has hitherto received little attention. Trade practices need to be regulated and amenities such as arrangements for shelter and water for animals should be provided in market yards. Facilities for giving authentic information to breeders regarding prices and marketing prospects are at present quite unsatisfactory. There should be a programme for marketing of livestock and livestock products in each State and especially in the key-villxige blocks. Schemes for correct shearing, grading and marketing of wool are of considerable importance. The plans of States also include schemes for demonstrations and propaganda regarding correct methods of flaying and utilisation of carcasses. A number of States have made specific provisions for improving slaughter houses, development of meat markets and in some cases setting up of abattoirs run on hygienic lines.

19. Hide flaying curing and carcass utilisation.—Due to the absence of a sufnoient number of modern slaughter houses and abattoirs, a large proportion of hides produced in the country are of 'fallen' type which are inferior in quality as compared to those from the slaughter houses. There is also lack of facilities for proper flaying and scientific curing with the result that the hides and skins produced in the country are inferior in quality ana fetch lower prices in the international market.

Exports of hides and skins are expected to go up from Rs. 28 crores in 1960-61 to Rs. 34 crores in 1965-66. Pressure on quality supplies is increasing from the indigenous leather manufacturers. In this connection the main problems are the scattered sources from which carcasses are to be colfected and the fact that local flayers have tended to give up their age-otd profession. This calls for a large scale programme for the better collection of fallen hides and for improved flaying. The prerequisites for such a programme are:

  1. timely recovery of carcasses and full utilisation of all by-products such as meat, bones,i tallow, horns, etc. ;
  2. tanning of hides and skins by improved methods under the guidance of trained personnel; and
  3. provision of adequate training facilities at selected centres.

In the Third Plan it is proposed to set up one large and 14 smai!l hide flaying, curing and carcass utilisation centres, and 2 mobile bone crushing units. A regional training centre in hide flaying, curing and utilisation will also be established.

20. Cattle Insurance.—Sometime the farmers suffer considerable losses due to the death of their draught or milch animals when there is an out-break of epidemic. A beginning has been made by the Co-operative Mutual Insurance Company, Bombay to insure milch animals and draught cattle in the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The Government of Kerala has also shown interest in such a scheme. Schemes to investigate the possibilities of cattle insurance have been proposed by Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Mysore, Madras and Punjab.

21. Other Schemes.—Cattle development activities are proposed to be intensified through private institutions such as goshal'as. In the Second Plan, 246 selected goshalas were taken up for the production of superior buMs, which will be further distributed for breeding purposes, and also for increasing the production of milk. It is proposed to provide 168 more goshalas with financial and technical assistance to convert them into cattle breeding-cum-milk production units.

There are traditional nomadic cattle breeders in some parts who maintain good specimens of certain breeds of cattle. There is need for improving the economic conditions of these professional herdsmen to continue their age old profession to develop and improve the herds, so that good genetic material available with them might be used for development in non-descript areas. In the Second Plan the scheme for the rehabilitation of nomadic cattle breeders was taken up in Andhra Pradesh, the former Bombay State, U.P. and Rajasthan. Provision has also been made for the development of Rathi and Tharparkar breeds of cattle maintained by the nomadic cattle breeders of Rajasthan.

22. Central Council of Gosamvardhana.—With a view to associating private institutions and organisations which are already engaged in cattle development, particularly the cow, the Central Council of Gosamvardhana was reorganised in 1960. The Council has been assigned specific functions such as to organise, implement and coordinate activities relating to the preservation and development of cattle and to administer schemes for increasing milk yield and improving draught quality. The Council will also run training centres for goshaia and charmalaya workers; organise exhibitions and issue journals, films and pamphfets for field workers. The Central Council of Gosamvardhana is also expected to bring about better coordination between various agencies interested in Gosamvardhana work.

23. Education and Research.—Educational programmes were developed to a considerable extent in the Second Plan with the establishment of three new veterinary colleges and the expansion of five colleges out of the 14 existing ones. In addition to the post-graduate college established at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. four veterinary colleges at Mathura. Madras, Bombay and Patna were upgraded for imparting post-graduate training. In the Third Plan, two new veterinary colleges will be opened, one in Gujarat and the other in Bihar. An extension wing is proposed to be attached to each college to provide adequate training in extension methods pertaining to animal husbandry. The estimated demand for 5000 veterinary graduates during the Second Ptan has been largely met. The requirements of veterinary graduates during the Third Plan period are estimated at 6800 as against the output of about 5800 from the existing colleges. Thus, there will be a gap of 1000 veterinary graduates to be covered. It is felt that with the fuller use of the existing institutions together with the establishment of two new veterinary colleges during the Plan period, requirements of veterinary graduates would be adequately met. Arrangements wilif also be made to train about 70,000 stockmen, which will meet the requirements of the Third Plan.

In order to undertake fundamental and other studies in sheep and wool production, a Central Sheep Breeding Research Institute will be established in Rajasthan with two sub-stations, one in the hilK region of Punjab and the other in the Nilgiris. Basic aspects concerning the utilisation of land in relation to breeding of different types of sheep, problems of hybridisation for high production, trials of imported breeds and nutrition in relation to production would be investigated at this institute. This Institute will also deal with the problem of wooB technology in relation to production and processing. The function of the sub-station would be to undertake experimental breeding for raising acclimatised strains of imported sheep breeds obtained from temperate climates.


24. The dairy industry in India faced with several problems, such as, scattered and small-scale milk production, inadequate transport facilities in most parts of the country, dependence on imported plant and machinery required for milk collection, processing and manufacturing, shortage of technical and skilled personnel and the lack of properly organised systems of marketing. Efforts have^ therefore, to be directed towards the collection of surplus milk from rural areas on an organised basis and the development of assured supply of good quality milk and milk products at reasonable prices to the consumers.


25. The First Plan provision of Rs. 7.81 crores was almost fully utilised. The main programmes related to the supply of milk to large cities under hygienic conditions supported by schemes of procurement from rural areas.

In the Second Plan, a provision of Rs. 17.44 crores was made for the dairy development programmes. Against this provision, an amount of Rs. 12.05 crores will be utilised. The Plan included 36 dairy plants for supply of milk to large consuming centres, 12 rural creameries and 7 milk product factories for the utilisation of surplus milk in milk pockets, expansion of 12 dairies and salvage farms, training of technical personnel and survey of dairy areas.

26. Due to the shortage of foreign exchange and the difficulty in obtaining plant and machinery, dairy development programmes had to be confined mostly to those schemes for which .equipment was available within the country, or was provided for under foreign aid programmes. Dairies have already been set up in Delhi, Poona, Kudgi, Kurnool, Guntur, Kodaikanal and Harin-ghata. Pilot milk schemes have also been started in some of the important towns. In all, 28 milk supply schemes are at various stages of implementation. Two milk product factories, one at Amritsar and the other at Rajkot and three rural creameries—one each at Barauni, Aligarh and Junagadh are being set up with foreign aid. There were 2257 co-operative milk supply societies and 77 milk supply unions in the country at the end of the year 1958-59> With membership of 211,131 and owned funds of Rs. 183 lakhs, they sold milk and milk products worth Rs. 11.32 crores.


27. The policy to be pursued in regard to dairying is to develop dairy projects with greater emphasis on milk production in the rural areas linked up with plans for marketing of surplus milk in the urban centres. The supply and collection of milk will be undertaken by a network of producers' co-operatives in the villages. The processing and distribution of milk and manufacture of mifflc products will be organised through plants operated, as far as possible, on co-operative lines. It is expected that reliance on co-operative organisations would halp in enlisting public participation and add to the pool of funds available under the Plan for this activity. In addition to development aimed at in the public sector, manufacture of milk products is proposed to be encouraged in the private sector. In the Second Plan, two units each for the manufacture of infant milk foods and malted-milk foods and one large-scale unit for sweetened condensed milk were set up. During the Third Plan two plants with a capacity of about 900 tons will start the production of infant milk foods, three units with a total capacity of 5300 tons per annum willl produce condensed milk and one unit will manufacture 670 tons per annum of milk beverages.

28. During the Third Plan, 55 new milk supply schemes will be taken up in cities with population exceeding one lakh and in growing industrial townships. In order to utilise economically the milk available in certain milk pockets where there are no ready markets for the disposal of fluid milk at remunerative price, rural creameries for the production of butter, ghee, cheese and other bye-products such as casein, lactose, milk powder etc. will be undertaken. It is proposed to establish 8 such rural creameries, 4 milk product factories and 2 cheese factories for developing the rural milk pockets. There is also a general shortage of concentrates which raises the cost of production of milk. Production of balanced rations through the use of various agricultural wastes and by-products such as wheat and rice brans, bagasse, molasses, decorticated cake etc. can go a long way in making available cheaper feeds for the cattle. It is proposed to establish 4 cattle feed compounding factories in the close vicinity of large milk supply plants. A provision of Rs. 36 crores has been made for dairy schemes in the Third Plan.

In order to give an impetus to dairy programmes, arrangements have to be made for the manufacture of dairy equipment and machinery within the country. Fabrication of dairy equipment, specially for small units, should be encouraged so as to popularise dairying as a local industry in the rural areas. Four firms have already been licensed for the manufacture of dairy equipment. These will start production during the Third Plan.

Most of the milk supply schemes started during the Second Plan will be expanded to increase the intake of surplus milk offered by the producers. Since milk has to be often transported from long distances, special provision has been made for increasing facilities for refrigerated rail transport of milk to large milk processing plants.

29. In addition to meeting the requirements of towns, the vital' interests of agriculturists have been kept in view while drawing up programmes for dairy development. Emphasis will be laid on the development of smaller dairy units and creameries in villages run on co-operative lines in order to strengthen the base of the agricultural economy through mixed farming. Salvage farms will be set up near big cities to preserve the stock of good cattle after completion of lactation. Intensive cattle development schemes will be undertaken in areas in which dairy and milk supply schemes are organised.

30. Dairying programmes will be effectively interwoven with the economy of the surrounding villages with a view to promoting the polficy of encouraging the development of dual purpose animals. It is widely recognised that widi the exception of a few rice tracts, where the buffalo may serve both purposes^ dual breeds of cows have to be encouraged through animal husbandry and dairying schemes. With this end in view, the loan assistance for the purchase of milch animals will be more purposive in nature during the Third Pfian and will be directed towards the fulfilment of the breeding policy. In order to promote good breeds of cows, to the extent feasible, cow's milk should be purchased by plants at the same price as buffalo milk. The percentage of the fat content should not be regarded as the sole criterion for fixing the price of milk. Although the cow's milk has a lesser fat content^ it has several other special qualities on account of which it is preferred for use by children and by patients in hospitals.

Even in the case of large dairies in big cities, every attempt should be made to link such schemes with the countryside, so that dairy schemes could be directly helpful in enriching the rural economy through the development of cattle with the twin objectives of increasing milk production and supplying good animals for draught purposes. The existing smaller dairies in medium-size towns will also be oriented in this direction according to phased programmes.

31. Colonies of cattle have been established at Aarey, Haringhata and Madhavaram (Madras) to improve the sanitation of the cities and organise milk supply on more economic lines. This method of colonisation has involved considerable capital outlay and it was, therefore, considered desirable to limit the responsibility of the State to the provision of land with essential services, e.g. roads, water supply and electricity. The developed areas, were to be divided into plots and leased out on reasonable terms to the displaced cattle owners.. Allottees would have to construct necessary cattle sheds and other buildings according to approved plan at their own cost. Facilities for the marketing of milk would be provided. Thus, the removal of milch animals from cities and their rehabilitation in colonies would be regarded primarily as health-cum-slum clearance measure, and the main responsibility for it would devolve on city municipalities and corporations.


32. The National Dairy Research Institute was shifted from Bangalore to Karnal with a view w increasing facilities for research and training. The Institute will be fully established during the Third Plan with its research divisions in dairy husbandry, technology, chemistry, bacteriology, nutrition, extension and economics, so as to meet the increasing requirements of the fast expanding dairy industry. The Bangalore sub-station of the Institute will also be expanded. In the field of dairy education, training facilities for the Indian Dairy Diploma (I.D.D.) at Bangalore, Allahabad, Anand and Aarey and for the B.Sc. (Dairying) and post-graduate studies at Karnal are proposed to be expanded. Training courses upto the graduate level in dairying will al|so be started at the Agricultural Institute. Anand. In-plant training in large dairies which has already been started will be continued and expanded during the Third Plan. The F.A.O. regional training programme which has been in progress will* be continued and expanded. It is also proposed to organise tutorial workshops for teachers at various dairy training centres together with other refresher courses for different categories of technical personnel needed for the various dairy projects. The requirements of dairy personnel during the Third Plan are estimated at 2830, of which 625 will be degree holders, 975 diploma holders and 1230 other categories of personnel. It is expected that these requirements of technical personnel will be adequately met.


33. The aquatic resources of Indian waters are varied and abundant. With a coastline of about 3000 mi'es, a continental shelf of more than 100,000 square miles, the two wide arms of the Indian ocean, and large numbres of gulfs and bays along the coast, the marine resources are extensive. The estuarine resources are also substantial with extensive back-waters, tidal estuaries, lagoons, and swamps along the entire coastline. The principal rivers with their main tributaries having a length of about 17,000 miles, the canals a^ong with irrigation channels about 70,000 miles in length and large numbers of lakes, reservoirs, tanks and ponds constitute a rich potential source of inland fisheries. Fishing and allied industries provide employment for about a million fishermen, most of whom live on the verge of poverty. Income from fisheries can be greally augmented through the use of improved techniques in all aspects of production and utilization and organisation of fishermen on co-operative lines.


34. In the First Plan an outlay of Rs. 2.8 crores was incurred on fisheries development. Expenditure in the Second Plan amounted to about Rs. 9 crores.

The survey of 13.34 lakh acres during the Second Plan points to the substantial fisheries resources. Additional area of about 82,000 acres was reclaimed for stocking suitable varieties of fish,. An area of 16.7 lakh acres was stocked with about 600 million fry and fingerlings.

Investigations were undertaken at the Central Fisheries Technological Research Institute at Cochin with a view to improvement in the designs of fishing craft and fishing gear. In addition to the Central Offshore Fishing Station, Bombay, for exploring new fishing grounds, three similar Stations were established at Cochin, Tuticorin and Visakhapatnam. Boat-building yards were established in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Mysore, Kerala, Madras and Andhra Pradesh. About 1800 boats were mechanised. With these, fishermen could go out into the sea 15 to 20 miles distance compared to the capacity of the customary non-mechanised boat to go out to a maximum of 6 miles and as a rule only 3 miles. Six refrigerated rail wagons were introduced on an experimental basis for the transport of fresh fish from the producing centres along the coast to pitices like Calcutta and Dqlhi. As a result of these various measures the production of fish increased from 7 lakh tons to 10 lakh tons by the end of the First Plan and to 14 lakh tons by the end of the Second Plan.


35. Fisheries schemes in the Third P^an have been formulated with the main objective of increased production so that protein diet becomes available to the population in addition to cereals. Due consideration has been given towards effecting improvement in the condition of fishermen. Emphasis has also been placed on the development of export trade.

36. Inland Fisheries.—The programme for inland fisheries undertaken in the First and Second Plans will be further expanded. Large-scale expansion has become possible in view of the technique of induced breeding by hormone treatment which has been successfully developed on Indian carps. This is a major development which will enable spawn and fry to be raised independently of the naturally-spawning areas. This technique will reduce the need for transporting fry and fingeriings to different areas, thereby minimising considerably mortality during transport. These Indian carps are useful in increasing the productivity of fish ponds. Another important development has been the introduction of the common carp from South-East Asia which is a useful addition to Indian carps. These developments can lead to a substantial increase in fish supply, provided they are accompanied by improvements in organisation at the local' level through Panchayats and co-operatives and in marketing.

37. The Third Plan provides for a programme of 50,000 acres of water in different States being used as demonstration fish farms. Similarly, demonstrations in the utilisation of estuarine areas will be undertaken over an area of 1500 acres and of marshy lands over an area of 2000 acres. It is proposed to stock 1200 million fry and fingerlyigs. Regular stocking will also be done in the river valley projects which offer considerable scope for fishery development. Programmes for the Third Plan include arrangements for clearing trees, boulders and other obstructions, establishment of nurseries, and measures for conservation of fish till it comes to fuljl maturity. These are necessarily long-term measures and stocking undertaken in the Third Plan will yiaid harvest in about 15 years' time. The economic value of development on these lines is, however, apparent from work done at a few reservoirs during the Second Plan.

38. To ensure effective use of inland waters, certain improvements in organisation at the local level are essential'. In the past, where water was owned by individuals, they did not have the resources to deveiop it. Where it belonged to Government, it was auctioned and developmental aspects did not receive the necessary attention and the fish was soon depleted. For these reasons, many ponds have already gone out of use. Panchayat Samitis and Panchayats should undertake the development of fish ponds and other inland waters as a growing local resource. They shouKd work in close association with cooperatives through which credit and marketing facilities should be made available.

39. Fisheries Co-operatives.—The formation and running of fisheries co-operatives is an important aspect of fisheries development during the Third Plan. There are at present about 2100 fisheries co-operatives with a total membership of about 220,000. . They are mainly centred in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala and Madras, although a few societies also exist in other States such as Mysore, Assam, Bihar and Orissa. Fisheries co-operatives function with varying degree of success and only about 800 of them can be said to have satisfactory performance. A number of factors have hampered the growth of co-operative societies, the more important these being :

(a) fishermen do not generally own boats. nets and other fishing equipments. In consequence middlemen, who provide credit, bind fishermen to work on their boats. For allowing the use of the boat, as much as 50 per cent of net sale proceeds is recovered as charge for hire; and

(b) co-operative societies have been mainly engaged in providing credit and an adequate effort has not been made to develop production and marketing.

Revitalisation of the existing fisheries co-operatives and their further development and linking up with marketing and processing co-operatives is an important task to be carried in the Third Plan. It is proposed to work out a detailed programme for this purpose. Organisation of co-operatives for fishermen is an indispensable means for preventing exploitation by middlemen, removing the indebtedness of fishermen and increasing production.

40. Marine Fisheries.—About two-thirds of the country's estimated fish production comes from the sea. In the Third Plan, besides intensifying existing programmes for installing engines in existing crafts and assuring supply of fishing requisites, it is proposed to introduce 4000 new mechanised crafts. The exploratory fishing programmes of the Central Deep Sea Fishing Stations at Bombay, Cochin, Tuticorin and Visakhapatnam will be expanded and additional units at Veraval, Mangalore, Paradwip and Port Blair will be established. These investigations will assist the development of a modern fishing industry. It is also proposed to operate 35 large vessels and to provide landing and berthing facilities for fishing at 16 ports.

41. Fish being a highly perishable commodity, adequate facilities for marketing are absolutely essential. Ice-cold storage, processing and canning are necessary processes for securing a reasonable price for the catches. A beginning has already been made in the Second Plan. Freezing facilities for prawns have come up in Cochin, Mangalore and Bombay. During the Third Plan period it is proposed to have 72 ice and cold storage plants distributed in different States to facilitate movement of fish in good condition to consuming centres. In addition, freezing and canning units are expected to be established in coastal districts in Western India, specially in Kerala, Mysore and Gujarat. Experience gained in the running of refrigerated rail wagons will be utilised in developing a regular transport system between fish production and consumption centres throughout the country. About 20 new vans are proposed to be introduced on the main routes. Work in the Indo-Norwegian project in Kerala, where new boats have been designed, mechanization of boats undertaken and better gear introduced, has also brought out the need for an integrated marketing system. In this project the ice and cold storage plant has been established as the base of operations and a co-operative fishermen's sales organization is being set up. Insulated transport and equipment for preserving fish at the consumption centres have also been introduced.

As a result of programmes that are to be' taken up during the Third Plan period; the production of fish is expected to increase from 14 lakh tons to 18 lakh tons. Exports of fish may go up from about Rs. 6 crores to about Rs. 12 crores. About Rs. 29 crores have been allotted for the development of fisheries in the Third Plan.


42. Research.—With the establishment of Central Fisheries Research Stations for Marine Fisheries at Mandapam, and for inland fisheries at Barrackpore as also the Central deep sea fishing station at Bombay, considerable progress has been made in the study of biology of commercial species, scientific investigations on conservation and management of inland fishery resources and charting of new fishing grounds. In the Third Plan, new investigations on oceanic fisheries, oceanographic studies, high altitude fisheries, fresh water prawns, back water fisheries, etc. will be taken up. Experimental and exploratory fishing will be undertaken in four new centres.

The Central Fisheries Technological Station, Cochin has undertaken investigations on gear material and their preservation, designing of improved types of mechanised fishing crafts, storage of fish in fresh, chilled and frozen conditions, processing and utilisation of fish and other marine products, etc. These investigations wild be intensified. In addition to the research schemes undertaken by the Central Stations, State Fisheries Departments will also work on local problems on fisheries.

43. Education.—A fisheries training institute for fisheries administrative personnel at district level has started functioning at Bombay. An institute for training operatives in fisheries at various levels will be established at Cochin. A sub-station for the training of assistant fisheries development officers and other personnel required for inland fisheries would be set up at Kaushalya Ganga near Bhubaneshwar in Orissa.

The total requirement of persons to run the different development projects in fisheries during the Third Five Year Plan is estimated at about 210Q. Of these, personnel of the level of district fisheries officers and other technical officers will number about 300 and 500 respectively. The requirements of the former will mostly be met by training at the Central Institute of Fisheries Education which will be established at Bombay, while the requirements of the other field staff will be met by the expanded activities which have to be provided at the Inland Fisheries Research Station, Barrackpore, the Inland Fisheries Sub-centre in Orissa and the off-shore fishing stations. As regards research and technological personnel! for research institutions, it is important that adequate facilities, should be available in the universities.

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