|4th Five Year Plan||
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A suitably oriented system of education can facilitate and promote social change and contribute to economic growth, not only by training skilled manpower for specific tasks of development but, what is perhaps even more important, by creating the requisite attitudes and climate. Facilities for universal elementary education are a pre-requisite for equality of opportunity.
16.2. There has been expansion at all levels of edu« cation during the last eight years (Annexures I to IV). The enrolment in classes IV increased from 35 million in 1960-61 to 55.5 million in 1968-69; in classes VIVIII from 6.7 million to 12.3 million; in classes IXXI from 3 million to 6.6 million; and at the university stage (for arts, science and commerce faculties) from 0.74 million to 1.69 million. The admission capacity in engineering and technological institutions increased from 13,824 to 25,000 at the degree level and from 25,800 to 48,600 at the diploma level. Considerable thought has also been given to the reform ot the education system. The recommendations ot the Education Commission (196466) form the basis of the National Policy on Education and provide the frame-woik for the 'formulation of the Plan programmes. Some efforts have been made in the States and at the Centre to enrich curricula and improve text-books and teaching methods. Steps have been taken to provide educational and vocational guidance, and develop facilities for science education and post-graduate education and research. The number of scholarships, stipends and free-ships have considerably increased, especially for the backward sections of the community. Salary scales and service conditions of teachers have been improved. Expenditure on education from all sources1 is estimated to have increased from Rs. 344 crores in 1960-61 to Rs. 850 crores in 1968-69. During the same period, expenditure from Government sources increased from Rs. 234 crores, or 68 per cent of the total expenditure in 1960-61, to an estimated sum of Rs-640 crores or 75 per cent in 1968-69.
16.3 The unfulfilled tasks are many. Much delay has already occurred in complying with the Constitutional Directive which enjoins on the State to "endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years". By 1968-69, only 62 per cent of the children in the age-group 614 were going to school. The percentage of the children in the age-gioup 611 was 77 and tha t of the 1114 age-group 32. The corresponding percentages for girls were 59 and 19 respectively. The percentage of children going to school in rural areas is still much lower than that in the urban areas, though the gap has steadily narrowed. Inspite of the rapid increase in the number of children at school from the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other backward classes, the percentage of their enrolment remains much below the national average. The position of facilities available or utilised differs from State to State and district to district. The State-wise data in Annexures II, III and V, reveal serious disparities. The problem of enrolling girls and the children of the Scheduled Csates and Scheduled Tribes assumes serious dimensions in some States. Mention may also be made of the considerable delays in putting up buildings and in the supply of equipment, particularly at the primary and secondary levels.
16.4. The rapid expansion in numbers has put a severe strain on the physical facilities and teaching personnel of educational institutions. At the primary level there is considerable wastage and stagnation. The proportion of failures at the secondary and university levels is high. The quality of post-graduate education and research and science education needs to be improved. Insufficient attention has bean paid to vocational education. In technical education, co-ordination between institutions and industry has not been effective.
16.5. Priority will be given to the expansion of elementary education and the emphasis will be on the provision of facilities for backward areas and communities and foi girls. A survey of the deficiencies in respect of buildings and equipment of educational institutions will be made with a view to removing them according to a phased programme. Other programmes of importance will be : improvement of teacher education;expansion and improvement of science education;raising standards of post-graduate education and research; development of Indian languages and book production, especially text books, and ths consolidation of technical education including reorganisation of polytechnic education and its closer linking with the needs of industry and its orientation towards self-employment. Increased efforts will be made to involve people in educational programmes and to mobilise public support. Youth services will be developed. It is proposed to effect economies by utilisation of existing facilities to the maximum possible extent, streamlining of the planning, implementing and evaluating machinery, increasing the use of educational technologiespart-time and correspondence courses, modern media of communication, optimum size of institutionswhich promote expansion and development with minimum investment and without lowering standards; and undertaking new tasks only after careful preparation through pilot projects. Activities like improvement of curricula and text-books in service education of teachers and researc h in methods of teaching, which do not require large funds but have' Oovernmsnt and non-Goverrment (Local bodies fees, endowments, etc.) on a types of educational institutions.a wide impact will be encouraged. Educational programmes will be increasingly related to social and economic objectives. This will require, among other tilings, co-ordination with development programmes in other-sectors and the drawing up of a perspective plan on the basis of manpower needs, social demand, and the likely availability of financial, material and human resources.
16.6. Pre-school Education.In the field of pre-school education, Government effort will be confined mainly to certain strategic areas such as training of teachers, evolving suitable teaching techniques, production of teaching materials and teachers' guides. In the Social Welfare sector, however, there is a small provision for the opening of balwadis in rural and urban areas.
16.7. Elementary Education.The targets of element tary education are set out in table 1.
The State-wise position of enrolment is indicated in Annexures II, III and V. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajas-than and Orissa have the problem of low enrolment-of girls and of children of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes whose numbers in these States are quite sizeable.Efforts will be made to remove the unbalances within States in regard to the provision of educational facilities at the elementary stage. Some States are considering the adoption of double shift in classes I and II, which between them account for 60 per cent of the enrolment in classes IV. It is proposed to make a study of the system as it has. operated in Kerala so as to facilitate its introduction elsewhere.
16.8. In regard to the age group 1114 , the problem is much more difficult as a large majority of the parents in rural areas withdraw their children from schools. The problem needs special attention in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. A possible remedy is to provide part-time education on. a large scale to children of this age group and provision has accordingly been made for pilot projects, which will facilitate large scale development later on. Setting up of schools within the reach of every child is tlie first necessary step towards universality of enrolment. To achieve this at minimum cost, detailed district plans will be drawn up. Each State will formulate a phased programme for the introduction of universal edcuation for all children in the age-group 614,
1 : Expansion of Elementary Education
16.9. Secondary Education.la the Fourth Plan, it is expected to enrol 3.1 million additional pupils in classes IXXI. The trend of expansion of facilities at the secondary stage is shown in table 2.
Table 2 : Expansion of Secondary Education
The location of new schools will be determined according to the requirements of each area as spelt out in detailed district plans. The main effort in the Fourth Plan will be to enrich the content and improve the quality of secondary education. A few States have taken preliminary steps to adopt the new pattern of secondary education, recommended by the Education Commission, and propose to complete the change over during the Fourth Plan.
16.10 A major task in the field of post-elementary education is to provide a large variety of vocational courses for children who do not intend to continue their general education beyond the elementary stage. These courses have to be of varying durations, depending upon the trades and vocations proposed to be learnt. The industrial training institutes will meet a part of this demand. To prepare students to take up employnT'nt after the secondary stage, a number of vocational courses arc being provided after class X in industrial training institutes, polytechnics, schools for nursing, and agricultural schools. It will also be necessary to devise a number of additional courses in response to new demands. Provision is being made for pilot projects for the purpose.
16.11. Girls, Education.Sustained efforts to extend education among girls have been made from the First Plan period. Girl students, as a percentage of their population in the relevant age-group, increased from 25 in 1950-51 to 59 in 1968-69 in classes IV, 5 to 19 in classes VIVIII and 2 to 10 in classes IXXI. The gap between the enrolment of boys and girls is still considerable. During the Fourth Plan, the enrolment of girls will b- further increased through the organisation of special programmes, the nature of which will vary from State to State. The position is shown in table 3.
3 : Expansion of Girls' Education
Among the special programmes to be undertaken for encouraging girl's education, stress will be laid on providing sanitary facilitjeslfor girls.
16.12. Teacher Education.At the elementary stage the number of teacher is estimated to have increased from about 1.09 million in 1960-61 to about 1.60 million in 1968-69. There has been correspondingly a steady expansion of teacher training facilities so that the number of elementary trained teachers during the period increased from about 0.71 million to about 1.24 million, raising the percentage ot trained teachers from 65 to 77. Further, during the period 1966-69, owing to financial stringency, some of the States were unable to employ all the teachers who passed out ot the training institutions. This has led to considerable unemployment among trained treachers in some States.? Faced with this situation, a few States have closed down some of the training institutions. Also taking advantage of the larger availability of trained teachers, some States have raised the period of training to two years. At present, the problem of untrained teachers is confined largely to the States and Union Territoiies in the eastern region. The programmes which need special attention are : improving the quality of teacher education, training of more women teachers and teachers from the tribal communities. training of mathematics and science teachers for the middle classes and in-service training. Wherever neces -sary, correspondence courses will be organised for untrained teachers now working in schools" The State Institutes of Education will cooperate in the imple. mentation of these programmes.
16.13. At the secondaiy stage, the number of teachers in 1968-69 was estimated at 0.525 million'of whom 0.381 million or 73% were trained. The training facilities available, at present, at this stage are considered adequate and can be easily expanded if the need arises. The correspondence courses organised by the Central Institute of Education, Delhi and the four Regional College? of Education are helping to speed up the training of untrained teachers. The main programmes during the Fourth Plan will be to improve standards of teacher education at this level and to organise a large in-service education programme especially for mathematics and science teachers. Funds will be placed at the disposal of the University Grants Commission to improve the physical facilities of the departments of education in universities and secondary training colleges and upgrade the professional competence of the teacher educators working in them. These programmes'will be coordinated with those of the National Council of Educational Research and Training, State Institutes of Education and State Institutes of Science Education.
16.14. National Council of Educational Research and Training and State Institutes of Education.To work out the programmes of qualitative improvement at the school stage, greater coordination will be effected between the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and the State Institutes of Education. Most of the States propose to bring under the State Institutes of Education the various institutions set up to guide the programmes of school improvement. During the Fourth Plan, the programmes already initiated in the fields of evaluation and guidance, curriculum construction, extension, text-book production, educational research and science education will be expanded. A number of pilot projects will be worked out and (valuated through these organisations. An important area of investigation and experimentation will be the reduction of wastage and stagnation at the primary stage. Training programmes foi ttacher educators will also be continued. A Committee was appointed to review and evaluate the activities and progiammes of NCERT. In the light of its iecom-mecdations, the departments of the National Institute of Education have been reorganised. Also suitable changes are being made in the working of the Regional Colleges of Education so that they may provide leadership in the field of teacher education.
16.15. Higher Education.The enrolment in Arts, Science, Commerce and Law courses in universities and colleges increased by 0.2 million during each of the First and Second Plans and by 0.5 million in the Third Plan. The additional enrolment in the Fourth Plan is estimated to be about one million. Of this, 0.15 million students will be provided education through correspondence courses, evening colleges and part-time classes. In pro. viding for the additional enrolment, emphasis will be on rational location of institutions and on optimum institutional size. So far, the correspondence courses have been confined to humanities only. It is proposed to extend them t,o othei disciplines as well. The estimates of university enrolment are setout intable 4.
Table 4 : Expansion of University Education
Its, science and commerce subjects excluding intermediate students of the U.P. Board but including the pre-university classes run by the universities.
16.16. During the Fourth Plan, the main emphasis will be on consolidation and improvement of higher education through the strengthening of staff and library and laboratory facilities. Affiliated colleges which provide education to more than 88 per cent of the university students will be helped. Assistance for fuller development will be given to a few colleges selected on the basis of their achievements, existing facilities and potentialities.
16.17. Post-graduate courses occupy a key position in the university system. Facilities for post-graduate education and research will be increased and their quality improved. The centres of advanced study, which are intended to encourage the pursuit of excellence, will be developed. It is also proposed to assist a few other promising university departments to grow as advanced centres. In order to develop inter-disciplinary research, clusters of advanced centres will be set-up in related subjects. The Indian Council of Social Science Research has been establishec" to promote research in social sciences.
16.18. Proposals to set up new universities will be carefully examined by the University Grants Commission and the Ministry of Education. The requirements of increased facilities for post-graduate studies will be met by establishing university centres in cities with a number of colleges and a large student population. These centres will have adequate library and laboratory facilities and a nucleus of university teachers.
16.19. The other programmes for higher education include provision for hostels, student study homes and other facilities. The programmes of improving the quality of teaching personnel include provision of summer schools, seminars, and staff quarters. The rural institutes will be more effectively linked with the needs of rural areas.
16.20. Scholarships and Fellowships.The present schemes of scholarships administered by the Central Government like the National Scholarships Schema, the National Loan Scholarships Scheme, National Scholarships for the Children of School Teachers and Merit Scholarships in Residential Schools will be stepped up. The University Grants Commission will also continue to provide fellowships for post-graduate education and research. The number of post-matric scholarships under the scheme for assisting students from the backward classes will increase from 145,000 in 1968-69 to about 200,000 in 1973-74. Scholarships will also be awarded for mechanical and agricultural education and scientific and industrial research.
16.21. Science Education.Enrolment in science sub" jects which was about 26 per cent of the total enrolment at the university stage (including pre-umversity classes) in 1960-61, rose to about 40 per cent in 1968-69 and is estimated to ri&e further to 45 per cent in 1973-74. Science education will be expanded and improved at elementary, secondary and university stages. With this end in view, programmes of pro-service and in-service training of teachers will be strengthened, curricula in science upgiaded and laboratory facilities provided. The administration and supervision of science piogrammes will be strengthened and infcTmal activities encouraged through science clubs and science fairs.
16.22. Adult Literacy.Efforts will b: made to spread literacy amongst adults th-ough mobilisa ion of voluntary effort and local community resources Pilot projects will be initiated in selected districts to begin with and the programme will be extended to other areas in the light of experiment. For the development of the programme, assistance will be sought from industry, from the students working under the Nations! Service Scheme, and from voluntry organisations which will be assisted financially and given technical guidance. The programme of Farmers' Education and Functional Literacy in the high-yielding variety areas, already mentioned under Apiculture, will be extended to 100 districts and will cover one million adult farmers. Adult education will continue to be an integral part of the community development programme. The University Departments of Adult Education will be helped to pilot projects, to conduct research and or-g.iaiie extension and extra-mural lectures. The National Board of Adult Education has been set up to advise Government on the development programmes and for enlisting the cooperation of the interests and agencies concerned. The further development of television and the experiments with satellite communications, which are to begin from 1972-73, may have significance for education, especially adult education.
16.23. Language Development and Book Production. The Official Languges (Amendment) Act, 1967 and the Government Resolution thereon, enjoin on tL; Government of India to prepare and implement a comprch. ns.ve programme for the spread and development of Hindi as well as the other modern Indian languages mentioned in the Constitution. The three-language formula will be progressively implemented. The Institute of Languages has been set up by the Central Government for inter -linguistic research, training of translators and encouraging the production of appropriate literature. The State Governments will also set up similar institutes at the State level. It is also proposed to set up four regional institutes for the training of teachers in modern Indian languages so as to enable the Hindi speaking States to introduce the teaching of modern Indian languages, other than Hindi, under the three-language formula. The work of the Scientific and Technical Terminology Commission v>dll be continued. The schemes for the development of Sanskrit v/ill be continued and their scope expanded.
16.24. Two important programmes are contemplated for book production ; the production of books in modern Indian languages, with a view to their adoption as media of instruction at (The university stage, and the indigenous production of books in English, with a view to reducing our dependence on imported books. These programmes will be taken up by the Central Government in colla-boaration with the University Grants Commission and the State Governments. Programmes of production of cheap text-books for the university stage will continue. At the school stage, intensive efforts wi ' be made to improve the quality of text-books, to produce ancillary teaching materials and to make proper arrangements for the distribution and,sale of text-books. Three modern printing presses will be set up to print school text-books. A number of State Governments propose to set up autonomous book production corporations. As recommended by the National Integration Council, a National Board of School Text-Books has been set up to coordinate the programmes of book production at the Central and State levels. Emphasis will also be placed on the production of children's books to promote national integration and develop their interest in science,
16.25. Cultural Programmes.The existing programme for the development of the three national Akade-mis, the Archaeological Survey of India and the National and other museums will be stepped up. In addition, replicas and prints of museum and archeological objects will be supplied to 'elected institutions to increase the awareness of our cultural heritage among students. The work relating to the compilation of the Indian and district gazetteers will be continued.
16.26. Youth Services.Youth services will be developed, both for students and non-students, to meet their needs in respect of personal development, idealistic yearnings and channelisation of energies intellectual, emotional and physical. For students, the programmes, will include improvement in curricula and methods of teaching and evaluation, provision of amenities such as hostels, reading seats and libraries including text-book libraries, strengthening of guidance, counselling and health services and increased provision for physical education, games and sports. Programmes of community or social service will be developed at the school stage as an integral part of the curriculum. At the university stage, the NCC will continue on an optional basis and, in addition, the National Service Corps Programme will be implemented on a selective basis, in the first instance, with a view to involving students in programmes of national or social service, including the conduct of literacy for adults. For non-students, the programme will include wider opportunities for further education and vocational or professional advancement through part-time or correspondence courses; development of facilities a for physical education, games and sports and cultural activities; and provision of guidance and counselling. Special attention will be paid to the needs of iural youth and training of youth leadership. Provision has been made for. setting up and assisting Planning Forums in colleges and universities. Efforts will be made to develop, both among student and non-student youth, a wide national outlook by bringing them together from different parts of the country for studies, social service and recreation. Efforts will be made to stimulate voluntary organisations to participate in and develop these programmes. It is proposed to set up a National Youth Organisation to advise Government on the development uf youth services.
16.27. Employment.Job opportunities will increase as the development programmes visualised in the Plan get implemented. In addition, special efforts will be made to increase opportunities for self employment. Apart from changes in curricula and methods of teaching oriented to this end at different stages of education, assistance will be provided in the form of technical guidance and, to the extent possible, loans for establishing small enterprises. Also, programmes of vocational guidance and counselling will be stepped up, by strengthening the University Employment Information and Guidance Bureaux and bringing them into closer contact with employing agencies. At the school stage, provision for vocational guidance will be stepped up, by the Employment Service in collaboration with the educational authorities. For non-student youth, the programmes of guidance and counselling and supply of employment market information through the employment exchanges will be strengthened and expanded. These will require an expansion of the Employment Service both in the urban and rural areas, more studies and surveys to supplement the current employment market information programme and sustained publicity to ensure maximum utilisation of these services by employers as well as workers. To ensure a uniform development of these programmes throughout the country and to build up a National Employment Service, more frequent and intensive evaluation will be necessary.
16.28. Technical Education.Technical institutions have been planned for an annual admission capacity of 25,000 students at the degree level and 48,600 students at the diploma level. In view of the present unemployment among engineers, the actual admissions in 1968-69 were about 18,000 in degree and 27,000 in diploma courses. It is proposed to keep the enrolment targets under review in the light of the assessed demand of engineering personnel in the Fifth and subsequent Plans. The main emphasis in technical education, during the Fourth Plan, will be on improving quality and standards. The improvement programmes would relate to pre-service and in-service training and training in industry of teachers the reorganisation of diploma courses in order to diversify them functionally to the needs of industry, expansion and improvement of postgraduate engineering studies and research, curriculum development and preparation of instructional materials including laboratory equipment. The number of places for practical training in industry which was increased from 2,000 in 1967-68 to 11,000 in 1968-69 will be maintained at about the same level during the Fourth Plan. The Apprentices Act is proposed to be amended to include graduates and diploma holders. Centres of advanced study will be developed in aeronautics at Bombay, in material sciences at Kharagpur and in electronics and automation at Bangalore. Steps will be taken to improve the part-time degree and diploma courses. Management studies at the Institutes of Management at Calcutta and Ahmedabad and in the universities will be further developed. Support will be given for development of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, the National Institute of Training in Industrial Engineering, Bombay, the National Institute of Forge and Foundry, Ranchi and other institutions. An attempt will be made for the closer linking of science and technology. The activities of technical Jnstitutions in fabricating equipment will be developed. H-91L/B(N)230D of PCN.Dslhi14
16.29. Planning, Administration and Evaluation Machinery.To implement educational programmes effectively^ the administrative machinery will be streamlined. The strength of the cadres, their recruitment and training policies and the incentives provided to them at various levels as well as the remedial measures required will be reviewed. The work-load of supervisors will be examined and the concept of supervision broadened to include professional guidance to teachers. Piovisicnwill be made for the training and re-training of administrative cadres. Research will be carried out in procedures and practices in different States as well as in 'other countries. The State Directorates of Education will carry out periodic reviews to reform the administrative machinery in response to the changing needs of educational programmes and policies. The task of detailed planning will be progressively shifted to the district level and individual institutions will be encouraged to plan and implement their own programmes of development.
16.30. Rs. 822.66 crores have been provided in addition to an average annual non-Plan expenditure qf Rs. 550 crores. Of the Plan outlay, Rs. 551.66 crores (67 per cent) will be in the State sector, Rs. 32.40 crores (4.0 per cent) in the Centrally sponsored sector and Rs. 238.60 crores (29.0 per cent) in the Central sector. Sub-headwise break-up of the total outlay is given in table 5. State-wise allocations for education are given in Annexure VI. According to the existing trends, about Rs. 150 crores are likely to be available from non-Government sources, which include fees, contributions by local bodies and endowments. In addition, education cess could be levied for elementary education and local resources mobilised for school buildings, school improvement, and mid-day meals.
16.31. Ideally educational development at the higher level should be broadly related to the pattern of jobs and the estimates of demand in the economy for educated manpower. This is important, both for the individual and the society. The individual is enabled to take decisions about future careers with the assurance that his training will be put to proper use and he would be productively employed. The gain to society flows from the fact that a timely view of educated manpower required to achieve the varied tasks of economic development makes it possible to provide adequately, yet not excessively, for the scale and pattern of educational development which will best serve the purpose. There are uncertainties inherent in the task. Long term forecast of the growth of the economy has to be made and in order to provide guidance for educational planning it must be not only sufficiently detailed but fairly authoritative. Even when this condition is broadly realised, it is not easy to work out the implications for employment and the corresponding requirement of phased output from the educational system.
16.32. As new facts emerge and better methods of analysis are evolved, fresh estimates will need to be made. Manpower planning, based on the needs of aneconomy postulated to grow at a certain pace will create problems of maladjustment if the pace of growth slackens significantly over protracted periods. On the other hand, if such planning is, from the beginning, predicated on an overcautious approach regarding the future tempo of development, there will be the certainty of exposing the economy to severe constraints imposed by a shortage of trained personnel at various levels when othel conditions favour faster growth. There are greater risks of loss when such avoidable shortages arise than when there is a marginal surplus of trained manpower.
Table 5 : Sub-headwise Distribution of Outlay for Education : Centre, Stales and Union Territories
Rs. 8 crores allocated for teacher training, Rs. 0.5 crore for adult education and Rs. 10.6 crores for technical education will be administered by University Grants Commission. 'Includes Rs. 8.30 crores for National Council of Educational Research and Training which besides other programmes has departments of Teacher Education and Adult Education. 'Includes Rs. 32.4 crores (Rs. 19.4crores in general education and Rs. 13 crores in technical education) in the Centrally sponsored sector as adjusted recently.
16.33. As manpowerjis not homogeneous, manpower planning has to concern itself with different categories, such as doctors, nurses, engineers, agricultural graduates and craftsmen, each having its own level of education and specialisation. The provision of educational facilities to meet the estimated manpower requiiements of some of the important categories is discussed below.
16.34. Medical Personnel.Expansion in admissions and out-turn of doctors during the Third Plan period, the three subsequent years and as planned for the last year of the Fourth Plan are shown in table 6.
Table 6 : Admission and Out-turn of Medical Graduates (numbers)
16.35. By the end of the Fourth Plan, the number of medical colleges is expacted to increase to 103, with an admission capacity of 13,000. To meet the requirement of teachers in medical colleges, specialists and research workers, existing facilities for post-graduate education will be expanded.
16.36. The stock of doctors increased from an estimated 70,000 in 1960-61 to 86,000 in 1965-66 and to 102,000 in 1968-69. It is estimated that it will increase to 138,000 in 1973-74. The doctor-population ratio in 1968-69 was approximately 1 : 5200. It is expected that by the end of the Fourth Plan a doctor-population ratio of 1 4300 will be reached and five years later of 1: 3700.
16.37. The training of nurses and para-medical personnel takes less time and adjustments of supply and demand can be made within a shorter span of time. The programme of expansion of facilities for the training of nurses and para-medical personnel will be related broadly to the requirements of these categories of personnel in connection with medical, public health and family planning programmes. The expected increase in their number is :
7 Stock of Para-medical Personnel
16.38. Agricultural Personnel.There has been a rapid expansion of facilities for the training of agricultural and veterinary graduates to meet the requirements of trained manpower for agricultural development :
8 : Training Facilities for Agriculture and Veterinary Graduates
16.39. The stock of agricultural and veterinary graduates has increased from about 14,000 and 5,000 in 1960-61 to 32,000 and 9300 respectively in 1965-66. On the basis of the present intake the stock of agricultural and veterinary graduates should increase to 65,000 and 15,500 respectively in 1973-74. It is expected that the requirements will be adequately met.
16.40. Provision is being made to create suitable training facilities to meet the requirements for agricultural technicians such as tractor operators and mechanics.
16.41. Engineering Personnel.During the Third Plan there was a considerable expansion of facilities for engineering education both at the degree and diploma levels. The admission targets set originally in the Third Plan were 19,100 for the degree courses and 37,400 for diploma courses. The position was reviewed in 1962 after the Chinese aggression and the declaration of a state of emergency. It was decided to accelerate the expansion of facilities for engineering education to meet the urgent additional requirements arising from the new developments. In the event, the targetsset for the end of the Third Plan were exceeded by1963-64. The actual levels are :
9 : Expansion
'Provisional estimates. 'Admission capacity.
16.42. There was virtually no increase in sanctioned intake in the degree and diploma levels of engineering education after 1965, but admissions dropped in 1967-68 and much more steeply in 1968-69 33 per cent below the level of previous year.
16.43. The stock of graduate engineers is estimated to have increased from 58,000 in 1960-61 to 134,000 in 1968-69, and of diploma holders from 75,000 in 1960 61 to 198,000 in 1968-69.
16.44. A decline and later the stagnation in the tempo of industrial development, the slowing down of the rate of investment, the severe control on Government expenditurethese features of the years 1966-67 and 1967-68 restricted the opportunities for employment of engineers, while new output recontinued on the basis of admissions 3 to 5 years earlier. While long-term solution was recognised to lie in the accelerated pace of economic development and in particular on rapid industral advance, a number of short-term measures were approved by Government of create employment opportunities for engineers, and seek a balance in supply and demand. As many institutions had expanded in a hurry, it was recommended that admissions be restricted to the number with which the institutions could adequately cope so that standards could be maintained. The out-turn of graduates and diploma holders during the Fourth Plan is, except to a marginal extent, pro-determined by the admissions which have already taken place. .The existing facilities for engineering education should be sufficient to meet the Fourth Plan and Fifth Plan requirements. No shortages are expected. The problem will be primarily of effective deployment and better utilisation of persons trained. There is need for studies to be undertaken both industry-wise and region-wise in order to ensure that regional or inter-speciality imbalances do not develop between supply and demand of broad categories of personnel.
ANNEXURE I Growth of Enrolment in Schools and Colleges : 1960-61 to 1973-74
includes enrolment in classes IX to XII in case of Uttar Pradesh which the State Government regard as part of school education. The actual admissions ware 27255 and 17890 respectively for diploma and degree courses. note : Figures in parenthesis indicate percentage of enrolment to the population in the corresponding age-group.
source : Ministry of Education for the years 1960-61 and 1965-66, Stats Governments/Union Territories for the years 1968-69 and 1973-74.
of Schooling FacilitiesClasses IV
includes Haryana and Chandigarh. sources : Ministry of Education for the years 1960-61 and 1965-66 and State Governments/Union Territories for the year 1968-69.
of Schooling FacilitiesClasses VIV III
enrolment in classes
IV Provision of Schooling FacilitiesClasses IX-XI
to classes VIII to XI. 'Includes Haryana and Chandigarh.
at School Stage by Sex : 1968-69
ANNEXURE V (contd.)
'Columns (8) to
(13) relate to classes VI and VII and columns (14) to (19) relate to classes
VIII to XI.
State-wise Allocation for Education in the Fourth Plan
'Includes cultural programmes.
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