4th Five Year Plan
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Chapter 7:

7.101. There is need for information regarding size and structure of holding and other related items by size of holdings) like land utilisation, cropping patterns, number of live-stock and number and types of agricultural implements for formulation und execution of plans for agricultural development on regional and operational unit basis. With the launching of the new strategy for agricultural development, it has become all the more necessary to have comprehensive holdingwise data for assessing the impact of these programmes and to plan t'oi future, it is proposed to collect this data by participating in the F.A.O.'s programme of World Agricultural Census, 1970.

7.102. A comprehensive scheme for studying the cost of cultivation of principal crops in the country on a continuous basis is proposed to be undertaken during the Fourth Plan period for the purposes of obtaining data on cost of production which will be useful for formulation of price policy. The scheme is to be implemented in various states and regions in the country.

Programmes for Special Classes and Areas

7.103. One of the two main objectives of the Plan, as already indicated, is to extend the benefits of development to the smaller cultivators and the under-privileged sections of the rural population. This objective is derived from both social and economic considerations. Numerically, the rural producers largely consist of "small" holders who, for this purpose, may be roughly defined as those whose holdings are 2 hectares or less. There are also agricultural labourers defined as those who depend on agricultural wages for more than half of their income. The small holders, and the agri-cultural labourers represent 52% and 24% respectively of total rural households. On the other hand, the pattern of land holding is such that only about 19 per cent of the cropped area is comprised within small holdings. In this uneven situation, the new agricultural technology tends to add a further dimension of disparity between those who have the resources to make use of it and those who have not. There is thus the danger of emergence of a sharp polarisation between the more privileged and less privileged classes in the rural sector, the privilege in this instance relating to the resources and tools of development. In the sphere of credit and related inputs, for example, the underlying facts are prominently brought out in the Report of the All India Rural Credit Review Committee (1969) whose recommendations concerning the establishment of small farmer's development agencies have siflce been accepted and enlarged in the Plan.

Small Farmers and Agricultural Labour

7.104. While the handicaps of small farmers differ from area to area, the major factors are fragmentation of holdings, insecurity of tenure, inadequate and untimely supply of inputs and water,-lack of credit facilities and unsatisfactory arrangc-: uients for marketing and storage. Various studies, including those conducted at the instance of the Planning Commission, show that the small farmers are not less progressive than ihe large farmers in their willingness to adopt modern inputs and cultural .practices. The approach to the problem of small but potentially viable farmers (generally those with holdings under two hectares) is not that of develop-. ing .a different technoelogy but that of enabling such /farmers by suitable means to participate in the available technology. In the Fourth Plan, this is sought to be achieved by a number of measures, both, general and specific. The general measures, which extend to the country as a whole, are com-" plenie'ntary in character and pertain to a number of .spheres including minor irrigation, agricultural credit and animal husbandry. A large amount of public investment is proposed for community works such as tanks and tubewells to benefit small farmers who would not be individually able to provide themselves with these facilities. Such minor irrigation works may be constructed by tile State Governments, panchayati raj institutions or other appropriate authorities. As regards agricultural credit, if is proposed to lake a number of steps for reorienting the general loaning policies and procedures of cooperative institutions in favour of the small farmers. These measures are indicated in the chapter on Cooperation. It is also envisaged that the Agricultural Refinance Corporation will provide assistance .for schemes on an area basis designed to enable _ tlie small farmers as well to take advantage of agri-:;Ctrityral, dairying, poultry and other programmes.

7. 105. The second direction of effort towards assisting the existing small but potentially viable 'farmers will be in the form of specific projects in about 45 selected districts. It is contemplated that a small Farmers' Development Agency will be set up in each of these districts.

7.106. Ceriain studies carried out on the problems of small farmers in different areas have shown that there can be no generalised scheme for uniform application. With reference to local resources and requirements, appropriate schemes have to be drawn up for the benefit of those small holders who have jusi. enough land to become surplus producers if ". they Adopt improved techniques on the basis of /sugport in terms of irrigation, credit and other " supplies and, in some cases, by taking up subsidiary programmes such as poultry or dairying. The study 'of local problems, and in relation to them, the for-caulation and implementation of local measures will lie entrusted to a Small Farmers' Development Agency set up in each of the selected districts. In order to provide a continuity of finance and to the requirement, a common basis for these extensive 'projects, the scheme has been included in the Central sector of-the Plan.

7.107. The.main functions of the Small Farmers' Development Agecny will be to identify the problems of the small tunnel's in ils area, prepare appropriate prognimmes, help to ensure availability of inputs, services and credit and evaluate the progress from time to time. To the maximum extent possible, This wiil be sought to be done through the existing ipstiiutions- fublic, cooperative and private as also local authorities such as Zila Parishads The agency may give assistance to small farmers in respect of clher services, such as lard levelling, machinery and marketing. Whether necessary the agency may itself undertake certain services for the benefit of small fanners. With a view to stimulating the flow of cooperative credit to such cultivators, it will provide grants to the central cooprative bank, the agricultural credit societies and the cooperative land development bank in the aresi and help them to build up special funds for covering the risks, if any, apprehended in such financing. In addition they will provide a subsidy to these institutions for strengthening their managerial and supervisory staff for this purpose. It will also draw up model plans lor investment and production activities to be under-(akeii by smull farmers operating under different sets of conditions.

7.108. As regards the typically non-viable small farmers, they fall basically into the same category as lundless labour. Their submarginal holdings do not fully employ the available family labour and hence the potential solution lies elsewhere than meely in crop husbandry. According to the Census in 1961, there were about 31 million agricultural labour in the country. The impact of the new agricultural technology on the economy of agricultural labour has been varied. In certain areas, with greater intensity of cropping, agricultural income has tended lo by-pass the sub-marginal cultivator and agricultural labourer. In several areas, these groups has also suffered by a growing disinclination on the part of the bigger farmers to lease out their lands.

7.109. In the Fourth Plan, efforts will be made to deal with the problem of sub-marginal cultivators and agricultural labourers by two sets of measures. The first set of measures lies in sphere of land reforms and is indicated in the section on Land Reforms. The second set of measures has for its aim the generation of employment oriented activities.

7.110. For the lurge class of sub-marginal farmers, agricultural labour and landless labour the remedy lies in the provision of supplementary occupations and other employment opportunities. Both occupations and employment have to be integrated into local planning. This is sought (o be done in a series of 40 projects located in different districts all over the country. These projects would, as far as possible, be market-based (e.g. centred round towns or other areas of demand) so that there is scope for development of employment-oriented activities, such as poultry and dairy farming. Stress will be laid on using the funds for development of various marketing and processing facilities with a view to giving organised support, preferably through cooperatives, to the activities of sub-marginal cultivators and agricultural labourers. Both in content and coverage these projects will of course be distinct from Other projects designed for the potentially viably farmers although, geographically, the areas of operation of two sets of projects may coincide in appropriate contexts. Where this happens, it may be possible to use the Small Farmers' Development Agency as the; instrument for executing both the schemes. In the other cases, a separate but analogous agency would have to be set up for the purpose.

7.111. While, for the development of small farmers and agricultural labour, the direct financial support from the Plan will be of the order of Rs. 115 crores, it is necessary to stress that these financial provisions are expected to help in attracting these projects a considerable volume of credit from various institutional sources. On ihe basis of the small farmers' projects approved :,o far, it is estimated that the total flow of short-ierm credit under 45 small fanners development projects is likely to be of the order of Rs. 90 crores per annum when all these projects are fully in operation. The long and medium term credit likely to be made available to the project areas during the Pian period may be placed at approximately Rs. PO crores. As regards . 40 projects for the development of sub-marginal , cultivators and agricultural labour, the institution;. 1 credit support will not be as substantial. However, it is provisionally estimated that an annual short-term credit of about Rs. 10 crores is likely to be made available in the project areas. The corresponding- estimate tor medium and iong-term credit is Rs. 30 crores. Thus the t^tal institutional support likely to be forthcoming in the long run for the two sets of projects is of the order of Rs. 300 crores, comprising short-term credit cf Rs. 100 crores per annum and medium and long-term credit of Rs. 200 crores for the total duration of the projects.

Dry Farming

7.112. In the context of spreading out the benefits of agricultural development, the Fourth Plan is vitally concerned with dry land farming areas. Dry land farming is sometimes equated with rain-fed farming. However, for operational purposes, it is necessary to distinguish dry land farming areas from absolutely aid or desert areas (with average rainfall below 375 mm.) on the one hand and yreas having a relatively assured rainfall of 1125 mm. and above on the other. The availability of irrigation facilities has also to be taken into account as significant factor modifying the intensity of dry land farming in different rain-fall zones. Keeping these aspects in view, it is estimated that, in the country as a whole, there are as many as 128 districts which have low to medium rainfall under 1125 mm. annually and which also havg very Limited irrigation facilities. These districts account for near) 68 million hectares or about one half of the total net sown area. Out of these districts, the very high intensity dry farming areas (i.e. with rainfall ranging from 375 mm. to 750 mm. and irrigated area below 10 per cent of the cropped area) mainly cover central parts of RaJasthan, Saurashtia region of Gujarat and rain shadow region of Western Ghats in Maharashtra and Mysore. Twentyfive districts fall in [his area and account for about 18 million hectares of the net sown area. Oniy about 5 per cent of the cultivated area is ucdcr iirigation. These areas are characterised by the maximum extent of instability in agricultural production and, therefore, present difficult problems. Out of the remaining districts, 12 districts already have irrigation covering about 30 to 50 per cent of the cropped area and hence (he problems of these districts are no longer acute. The remaining 91 di and lricts, spread out mainly in Madhya Pradesh. Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Mysore, Uttar Pradesh, parts of Haryana and Tamil Nadu, represent the typical dry land farming tract. The total net sown area comprising in these districts is estimated at about 42 million hectares of which about 5 million hectares are irrigated. A large part of these areas receive an annual rainfall ranging from 750 mm. to ! 125 mm. It is these dry land farming areas Vihich hold good promise of respondins to a new package of technology.

7.113. In the Second Plan, 45 Dry Farming projects, covering about 400 hectares each, were taken up in different States and were extended through ihe Third Plan. These projects aimed at demonstrating the benefit of improved dry farming practices in low and erratic rainfali areas. The scope of these demonstrations included engineering measures like contour-bunding and terracing and agronomic practices relating to water conservation. A limited measure of success was reported to have been achieved by these projects.

7.114. An important objective of the Fourth Plan is to make a significant impact on dry farming. The programme envisaged is two-fold, viz., research into improved dry farming technology and application of. such technology to dry farming areas.

7.115. Research on dry farming techniques is being conducted at a number of centres as also at the Central Arid Zone Research Institute at Jodh-pur. What is necessary is the development of an integrated package of technology. For the Fourth Plan, research is proposed to be taken up on the basis of an All India Coordinated Project. Under this project research at a number of centres representing various agro-climatic and soil conservation conditions will be taken up. Different research aspects such as breeding drought resistant varieties, water harvesting, minimum irrigation, minimum tillage, fertiliser application including foliar application, soil and moisture conservation are included !: within the scope of the project. In addition, research 'programmes are also proposed to be intensified at the Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Indian Grassland and Fodder Institute and eight Soil Conservation Centres. Further, in the all India Coordinated project relating to crops such as cotton, care Will .be taken to see that the probiems of these crops in rainfed condition receive proper attention. It is also contemplated that agricultural universities will concern themselves with dry farming research in their normal research programmes.

7.116. Besides research, specific programmes for application of packages of technology will be taken up in the dry farming areas. For this purpose, the Plan includes a new Centrally sponsored scheme with an outlay of Rs. 20 crores. This provision, which will be supplemented in different ways as later indicated, will be reviewed in due course in the light of the progress of the scheme.

7.117. On the basis of available research findings tile'main consiluents of the new technology for dry farming will be :

  1. Soil Management;
  2. Harvesting of water;
  3. New crop varieties; and
  4. New agronomic practices.

Soil management will include measures relating to soil structure, soil fertility and correction of alkalinity of the soil. As regard harvesting of water, it is observed that most of the rainfall in dry areas is received from the South West monsoon and because of the poor soil structure and the undulating topography, much of the moisture is lost. Hence steps are necessary for popularisation of modern water harvesting procedures, including the use of aluminium foil and polythelene film. An important aspect will relate to the introduction of new crop varieties. The development of quick yielding and photo-insensitive varieties has opened up new possibilities for instance short duration varieties of caster, arhar and jowar have been developed. It will be necessary to extend the adoption of these varieties so that double cropping may be practised over larger areas. Aming the new agronomic practices would be included the application of nutrients through foliar feeding.

7.118. For undertaking the application of new technology, it is contemplated that pilot projects would be organised under;he Centrally sponsored scheme included in the Fourth Plan. Each project will be linked up with one of the main or sub-centres for research in dry farming. It is proposed that in the first year, about 1,000 hectares of compact area may be covered by each project. In the second year, depending upon the success in the initial year, tlic area may be covered by 4,000 hectares ;uid in (he i.ssi; two years about 10,000 hectares. The new techi clogy of development of dry areas would require much more detailed and integrated planning and coordinated action than in the case with irrigated areas. Intensive training programmes for extension personnel will have to precede the introduction of the new technology. For imparting liaimny, tlie services of agricultural universities and institutions in all dry areas will be utilised.

7.119. Apart from the special scheme for development of dry farming included in the Centrally sponsored sector, it is contemplated that other Plan outlays will be available for helping to improve the economy of dry land farming. A sizeable outlay has been provided in the State Plans for promoting soil conservation measures. It is expected that the bulk of this outlay will be utilised by the State Governments in dry areas. The same will also apply to some of the provisions in the State Plans earmarked for development of animal husbandry and dairying. Again, in the Centrally sponsored sector, funds have been provided for development of commercial crops such as oilseeds and cotton. Since these crops are grown largely in areas with less than 75 cms. of average rainfall, it is contemplated that more than two-third of the outlay under this programme will also be used in the areas characterised by dry farming. It is estimated that the total financial support to the development of dry land farming under various Plan schemes will be of the order of Rs. 150 crores.

7.120. Apart from outlays included in the Plan, the Central Government annually provides about Rs. 25 crores from the budget as grants to famine affected areas. Over the Fourth Plan period, nearly Rs. 100 crores are likely to be available from this source. The bulk of this amount can be so deployed in the areas chronically affected by drought as to generate considerable employment in the rural sector largely related to a pre-planned programme of rural works. The individual schemes of rural works thus drawn up should be integrated on the one hand with the general programmes of agricultural development in the areas concerned and, on the other, with specific programmes of development for sub-marginal farmers and agricultural labour. All these are aspects which require considerable attention and advance planning if the results obtained are to be commensurate with the outlay both in terms of the rural employment generated and the development achieved.

Desert Areas

7.121. Repeated famines and prevalence of scarcity conditions in desert areas of the country have brought to the fore the need for developing such areas on a permanent basis. A Central sector scheme of desert development has been formulated under which pilot projects involving schemes of soil conservation, afforestation, minor irrigation and agricultural development would be taken up in Gujarat, Haryana and Rajasthan, A provision of Rs. 2 crores has been made.

Selected Command Areas

7.122. During the period covered by the Annual Plans (1966-69), a Centrally sponsored programme of ayacut development was formulated for the purpose of ensuring more speedy agricultural development in the wake of irrigation projects. Attention was paid to tile infra-structure as also to measure for intensive farming. It was expected that this integrated programme would cover about 0.8 million hectaies in the command areas of eight river projects. The projects themselves were called area development schemes. In the Fourth Plan. ten such schemes will be executed in different command areas, namely. Tungabhadra, Nagarjunasagar, Kosi, Kangsabati, Rajasthan Canal, Mahi-Kadana, Tawa, Jayakwadi stage I, Cauvery Delta and Pochampad. Under a Central sector scheme, assistance will be provided for creation of marketing complexes and certain ancillary facilities such as link roads and storage. Other items will include land shaping and levelling, provision of irrigation outlets and field channels and the attendant drainage and water scheduling for crop requirements in order to make optimum use of water and to maximise farm income through proper crop sequence. Arrangements will also be made for custom service for agricultural operations. These will be supplemented with processing facilities for agricultural commodities. Apart from the command areas of irrigation projects, there will be a few other special areas where integrated development of agriculture and allied activities will be taken up.


7.123. For the Fourth Plan, a base level of 18 million tonnes of wheat has been assumed. This is also the level of production actually recorded in 1968-69. The target is to increase the production by six million tonnes of wheat, thereby raising the total production to 24 million tonnes. A substantial part (5 million tonnes) of the increase in production is expected out of the high-yielding varieties programme. This will be sought to be achieved largely by extension of the area under high-yielding varieties. This extension will be to the extent of 2.9 million hectares against a base level or 4.8 million hectares. It may be clarified that this base level is higher than was envisaged in the Draft Fourth Plan because of accelerated coverage of HVP wheat (luring 1968-69. It is contemplated lhat, by stepping up the dosage of fertiliser and other cultural practices, a larger yield wili also be achieved from the already miner high-yielding varieties. During ) 968-b9, Punjab was able to achieve an average yield or 2,167 kgs. per hectare. Next to Punjab, the highest average yield of wheat was recorded in Haryana 1.701 kgs. per hectare. The other Vv'heat giowing States are lar behind Punjab and Haryana. .There is thus considerable scope for improvement iu wheat productivity.

7.124. Apart from programmes of extension and development, wheat will continue to receive further support by way of research into specific problems. Some of these problems are listed below :

(i) The high-yielding varieties which have been introduced in recent years do not possess the desired grain quality, inciuding, chapali-making qualities, comparable to that of the tail, indigenous wheat varieties. The earlier varieties, like Lamia Rojo and Sonora 64, were accepted by Indian growers for their very high-yielding ability, but were r.ot liked for the red grains and other inferior grain quality attributes. Although the later amber-grained varieties, especially Kaiyanasona and Sonalika have acceptable grain appearance, their chapati-nrdking qualities leave scope for improvement. The task of improving grain appearance and quality of the high-yielding varieties needs further attention.

(ii) More work is also needed on the development of high-yielding varieties with high protein content, especially with a better aniinuacid balance including higher lysine content. Among the high-yielding varieties, Sharbati Sonora hus a somewhat higher protein and lysine content; but it is highly susceptible to loose smut and not very resistant to rusts.

(iii) The disease resistance of the high-yielding varieties has to be greatly improved. Another problem is that newer races of the rust organisms can arise in nature, making the earlier resistant varieties sus-pectible. Constant surveillance has to be maintained to detect the origin of new and more virulent races of the rusts and the other diseases of wheat. Besides resistance to the rust diseases (black, brown and yellow rust), each of which has numerous races, resistance is needed against other diseases, like loose smut.

(iv) Although insect pests are at present not a serious problem on wheat crop, some advance research is necessary, based on Mexican and to some extent recent Indian experience, for breeding insect resistant varieties of wheat and also for evolving schedules of chemical control of insect pests.

(v) The new dwarf wheat varieties are distinctly more resistant to lodging than the desi wheats, but even these have been found to lodge in certain parts of the country under heavy regimes of fertilisation and irrigation. Research is needed to breed highly lodging resistant varieties by incorporating into them 3-genc dwarfness and/or high straw strength.


7.125. The largest single stake in the agricultural programme for the Fourth Plan is provided by the target for rice, the achievement of which is crucial to the success of the Plan. In regard to rice, the base level assumed for the Fourth Plan is 39 million tonnes, which is also the actual production of 1968-69. The increase projected is 13 million tonnes of which the high-yielding varieties programme accounts for as much as 11 million tonnes. Again, in the high-yielding varieties programme, the bulk of the increase is contemplated out of extension in coverage from a base level of 2.6 million hectares to a cumulative level of 10.1 million hectares in 1973-74.

7.126. So far, the high-yielding varieties programme has not made a significant overall impact oil increase in yield in rice. The new rice varieties require more complex management particularly with regard to water. Furthermore, in large parts of the country these are susceptible to pests and various diseases. Generally speaking, adoption of new agronomic practices have not kept pace with the requirements of the programme. Hence very considerable stress will be necessary in the Fourth Plan on extension and development work relating lo rice.

7.127. As regards research, special attention is proposed to be devoted to the following problems and tasks :

(i) The disease and pest problems of high-yielding varieties of rice are many and they are very pressing. Research of their control by breeding disease and pest resistant varieties, and/or by developing effective measures for chemically controlling them, is most urgently needed. The main diseases to content with are the bacterial leaf blight, tungro and a few other virus diseases. H' elm'mthospmum leaf blights and the blast disease, and the most important pests are the stem borers and the gall midge. Donors of genetic resistance to all these diseases and pests have ailready been identified and breeding work for disease and pest resistance is now vigorously apace.

(ii) The diseases, especially blast and bacterial lief blight, are known as "strains" or physiologic races—different races occurring in different parts of the country. They have to be carefully identified so that a variety bred for resistance in one part of the country docs not become susceptible iii another pan where different races of the disease occur.

(iii) The grain type of die new, dwarf high. yielding varieties is coarse and the cooking quality not quite satisfactory. The newer varieties bred in India— e.g. Jaya. Padma and Hamsa, have better grain and cooking quality. But there is still much room for increasing their yielding ability and improving their graia type and cooking quality. The superior grained Padma and Hamsa, and also the dwarf Basmati cultures recently developed by IARI, are not as high-yielding as 1R-S and Jaya.

(iv) Problems of water management and allied practices relative to paddy cultivation are still major outstanding problems requiring research. Deficiency of micronutrient elements in the soil (e.g. of zinc which causes the Khaira disease in extensive areas) also needs to be studied.

(v) Research is needed fur developing high-yielding varieties, with sisnder grains with or without scent and with superior cooking qualities. These would be very valuable for export. The breeding of dwarf basmati types is a step in this direction; but much more work is yet needed.

7.128. Rice production in the Fourth Plan is also linked very vitally to certain programmes concerning the post-harvest aspects of drying, threshing and milling. The lack of dormancy of the new varieties makes drying mandatory when they are harvested before the end of the rainy season. Some progress has already been made in the installation of artificial driers in Tanjore district. In the light of the experience available, further action in this regard will be necessary. As regards rice milling, it is observed lhat the total number of paddy processing units in the country exceeds 44,000 of which a pieponderant majority are traditional hullers. A beginning towards modernisation of the rice milling industry was made in 1963 when seven plants wcie imported from abroad. Six of these plants were set up in the cooperative sector while one was established in the public sector. In addition, the Food Corporation has in hand a programme tor establishing 24 modern rice mills. So far, four of that mills have been set up. It is contemplated thai ihe remaining mills will also be commissioned by 1970-71.

7.129. The modern rice milling programme undertaken so far consists broadly of two parts. Kit first part is concerned with the modernisation uf the milling plant along with the introduction of mi improved par-boiling system and mechanical driers. The other part relates to the establishment of silo storage alongwith mechanical handling equipment. As regards the nrsi part, evaluation made by an expert team lias shown that modern iicl milling machinery is capable of giving an outturn of 68 to 74 per cent of raw rice from paddy which, on an average, is higher by 25 per cent than the sheller type mills und 6.6 per cent than the hulier mills. The quality of rice and bran being obtained in the modern rice 'nills is also superior to that obtained from conventional mills. The economics of silo storage and mechanical handling are yet to be fully assessed. In the earlier units, the per tonne cost of storage varied from Rs. 360 to Rs. 479. Recently attempts have been made to improve the disign and lower the cost. The results of the improved design are yet to be evaluated. In view of these fads, the main focus of future activities is on modem rice mill machinery rather than on silo Storage which has, so far, accounted for nearly 60 to 70 per cent cost of the modern rice mill. In the Fourth Plan, programmes have oeen drawn up for establishment of additional modern rice mills in tile cooperative sector and also for modernisation of existing rice mills with the cooperatives. Assistance fur this purpose will be provided by the National Cooperative Development Corporation. In order to facilitate the modernisation of the rice milling industry in the cooperative and private sectors, action lias been taken to license certain manufacturers. Provision .has also been made in the Plan for imparting training in modern rice milling technology.

Maize, Jowar and Bajra

7.130. In the Fourth Plan, the base level assumed acd the targets proposed for these three cereals crops are as follows :

Table 9 : Taracts Proposed for Maize, Jowar and Bajra (million tomics)

sl.no. item base level cumulative level in 1973-74
(1) (2) (3)
1 maize 6.2" B.O
2- jowar 10.0 15.0
3 bajra 5.1 7.0

7.131. It was earlier anticipated that, on the eve of the Fourth Plan, an area of about one million hectares would be covered by hybrid maize. The actual achievement, however, has been only 0.4 million hectares by the end of 1968-69. This short-tali has been mainly on account of the factors connected with prices and marketability.

7.1 32 In hybrid maile a significant step forward in research has been the development of composite varieties Tnese varieties have a somewhat lower yield potential than the bes't hybrids but have a wider range of adaptability and require less frequent seed replacement. The country has at, present six composites in addition to four high-yielding hybirds. Nonetheless, on account of the constraint mentioned above, the target of high-yielding varieties of maize in the Fourth Plan has been scaled down from 2 million hectares to 1.2 million hectares. As regards hybrid bajra and jowar, the targets of Draft Fourth Plan have been retained as these crops, on account of yield differential, continue to be remunerative even when cultivated in poor lands with varying rainfall.


7.133. One of the serious problem areas in the Fourth Plan relates to pulse production. As brought out in paragraph 7.12, the average output per hectare of pulses has been showing a negative growth rate. While in 1967-68, pulse production touched a level of 12.10 million tonnes, it came down to 10.41 million tonnes in ] 968-69. Nonetheless, for the purposes of the Fourth Plan, the base level has been assumed as 12.5 million tonnes and the Fourth Plan production has been projected at 15 million tonnes.

7.134. Apart from various programmes of extension and research and reorientation of minimum support price for some of the pulse crops, the main thrust of effort in the Fourth Plan will relate to research. In 1965, an All-India Coordinated Pulse project was initiated to undertake a nation-wise research effort on pulses with headquarters at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, two regional centres and four sub-centres. Under this project All-India coordinated varietal trials have been made. These trials have shown that several varieties have much wider adaptation than was known before. While thus some progress in regard to pulse improvement is under way, considerable further action is necessary. The main tasks to which research on pulses will be directed are as follow :

  1. Breeding of suitable varieties of different kinds of pulses for fitting into multiple-cropping or relay-cropping systems.
  2. Breeding varieties with synchronous fruiting (especially in moong and tur or arhar) where pickings are required. Uniformly ripening varieties are desirable for growing on extensive areas and saving on labour cost and for minimising loss in yield due to shattering of the fruits.
  3. Breeding of suitable varieties of urd for mixed cropping in North India, and also of moth which grows well under semi-arid and arid conditions.
  4. Breeding of disease resistant varieties—e.g. for resistance to the wilt disease in tur or urhar, wilt and blight disease in Bengal gram and bacterial and virus diseases in the other pulses.
  5. Insect pests (including especially the good borers) cause heavy losses to yield in pulses. They must be controlled either by developing resistant varieties or by newer insectieidal schedules. Research is also needed for preventing damage to pulses in storage, which is very heavy.
  6. The legumes benefit from rhizobial cultures. Pulses being the most important legumes in India, are to be studied with regard to their responsiveness to bacterial cultures.


7.135. In the Fourth Plan, the target in respect of cotton is to increase production from a base level of 6 million bales to 8 million bales. The core of the strategy to realise the target will be package programmes which will be extended to cover 2.34 million hectares by 1973-74. Under a Centrally sponsored scheme, intensive cultivation will be sought to be introduced in an area of about 0.5 million hectares annually in the irrigated and assured rainfall areas. Plant protection through aerial and ground operations will be taken upto cover an area of 800,000 hectares. In addition it is envisaged to undenake foliar spray of urea on demonstration basis over an annual area of 22,500 hectares of irrigated cotton. Provision has also been made in the Plan for production of nucleus and foundation seed by the Research Institutes and the agricultural universities. The National Seeds Corporation will undertake further multiplication of foundation seed into certified seed especially in case of newly evolved varieties of long staple and shorter duration.

7.136. One of the major handicaps of cotton has been the fact that bulk of the crop (about 86 per cent) is grown under unirrigated conditions. Irrigated cotton limited to Punjab, Rajasthan and parts of Maharashtra. It is only recently that cultivation of cotton in the rice-fallows of Andhra Pradesh has been taken up. Efforts will be made to encourage irrigated cotton larger areas. It is anticipated that an additional area of about 0.3 million hectares will come under irrigated cotton, including the area of double cropping, by the end of the Fourth Plans.

7.137. The demand for cotton, over the years, has moved from short medium staple to extra long staple. Hence special stress will be laid on develop. ment '^f Sea Island Cotton which falls in the category of extra long staple. This variety is higher susceptible to jassjd attack and a minimum of 10 to 13 spraying are required to raise the crop successfully. Hence vigorous plant protection measures are contemplated. In the past, efforts to develop this variety also failed because of limitations of irrigation. Special efforts are, therefore, contemplated to develop Sea Island Cotton by augmenting irrigation facilities in areas suitable for this variety.

7.138. Recent research has shown that India can sucessfully cultivate the Egyptian type high quality cotton. A recently developed variety Sujata gives good yield of kapas and fibre capable of spinning of counts ah high as 99's. Its cultivation in Tamil JNadu and some of the adjoining States is proposed to be encouraged. Further research will also be directed towards breeding early maturing varieties of high quality cotton.

7.139. The improved varieties of the American type cottons produced so far in India have, despite long staple length in some of them. not given varieties superior to 45s or 50s counts (the recently-evolved. Tamil Nadu variety, MCU-5, and Badnawar of M.P. are only a few exceptions). Research is needed in this group of cotton for breeding varieties having early maturity, large bolls, and superior fibre quality capable of spinning counts beyond 50s, and preferably beyond 70s. Early maturity will enable double cropping system, e.g., cotton-wneat and cotton in rice fallows in irrigated areas.

7.140. Other problems of cotton to which research is proposed to be directed are as follows :

  1. Breeding of varieties for high yields, the aim being a yield of at least 5 bales per hectare.
  2. Provision of varieties resistant to diseases (blackgram) and pets (jassids, bolworms) which take a heavy toll of cotton crops.
  3. Development of agronomic practices for helping in maximisation of yield.


7.141. The Fourth Plan target for jute is 7.4 mil. lion bales as expanded with a base level assumed at 6.2 million bales. The development programmes for jute include a special package programme in selected areas under a Centrally sponsored scheme. Since foliar application of urea has been found to increase yield of jute substantially, stress will be laid on supply of urea and low volume power spra-yers. During 1967-68. aerial spraying of urea on jute was tried and found useful. Hence a further programme of aerial spraying of urea is also envisaged. Provision has also been made for supply of certified improved seeds in the special package areas which are likely to cover about 84,000 hectares. Since the quality of fibre is dependent on correct retting, a special programme for improving retting facilities is also envisaged.

7.142. The following are the specific problems and tasks to which agricultural research in jute will be pointedly directed :

  1. As the existing improved varieties like JRO-632 and JRO-753 do not satisfy the needs of all the jute growing tracts, varieties suited to local conditions needs to be evolved, e.g., drought-resistant varieties in U.P., flood tolerant types in Assam.
  2. Breeding of selected day neutral types suitable for early sowing in different agro-climatic zones.
  3. Development of improved methods of retting with a view to improving the quality of jute fibre.
  4. Measures to deal with specific diseases to which the crop is vulnerable in particular areas, e.g., field cricket menace in Assam, leaf mosaic disease in North Bengal and Assam.
  5. Jute is facing competition from synthetic fibres in foreign countries and from food-grain crops within the country. Researches on development of suitable cropping pattern to fit in jute with foodgrain crops in rotation are being intensified. Likewise research on jute technology has to find alternative uses for this fibre, in addition to conventional uses.

7.143. While, in the Fourth Plan. efforts will continue to be made to achieve a variefal improvement in jute, it is necessary to recognise that there is an obvious limitation in doing so. For jute, there is no exotic germ plasm which can be utilised for breeding purposes. Hence, for achievement of Plan targets. the stress has to' be laid on increasing productivity which is possible on the basis of already known technology. The present average production pf jute is about 7.4 bales per hectare. For accomplishment. of the Plan target, what is required is an increase in yield by about 25 per cent. The yields obtained on farmers' fields under the programme of national demonstration show that this increase is easily attainable provided improvements are made m cultural practices and there is a wider use of improved seeds and fertilisers. The scope for improvement is highlighted by the fact that at present only about one-third of the area under Jute is covered by improved seeds and only about one-fourth of the area of jute cropped is fertilised. There is urgent need for purposeful extension programme directed toward a more widespread use of fertilisers and improved seeds.


7.144. The oilseeds crops continue to present a problem of some magnitude. For the period 1949-50 to 1967-68, the productivity of oilseeds increased only by 0.63 per cent per annum. Among the non-foodgrain crops, this is lowest rate in yield except for jute. Among the oilseeds, groundnut which is the major crop, has shown a still lower growth rate which compares very unfavourably with that cf the competing crops. Alongside low and stagnant productivity. the oilseeds economy has also been characterised by sharp year to year fluctuation in production and prices.

7.145. In the Fourth Plan, the target is to increase the production to 10.5 million tonnes of oilseeds against an assumed base level of 8.5 million tonnes. This will be sought to be achieved by a variety of measures, partly in the sphere of development and partly in the realm of research.

7.146. So far, one of the major limitations in increasing the productivity in groundnut has been the fact that, as a kharif crop, it was almost entirely grown under rainfall conditions. It is only recently that cultivation of groundnut has been sought to be extended to irrigated areas, especially as winter and summer crops, when yields of a high order have been recorded. It is proposed to bring an additional area of 120.000 hectares through a second crop of groundnut during summer or rabi seasons in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Mysore and Orissa in irrigated areas. During the Fourth Plan, an intensive package approach will be extended over an area of about 2.5 million hectares. This package will stress the use of phosphatic fertiliser with basal doses of nitrogen as also plant protection chemicals.

7.147. A break-through has been achieved in castor by the development of a new shcrt duration high yielding dwarf variety, namely, NPH-1 (Aruna). This variety is responsive to irrigation and high doses of fertiliser and its duration is limited to 125—140 days, which is half the time taken by the present varieties. The yield potential. H'-'wever, is nearly three times. Another short duration hybrid castor GHC-3 has also been developed in Gujarat. In the Fourth Plan, it is proposed to demonstrate and popularise the use of these varieties in various castor growing areas in the country.

7.148. Besides development, research in oilseeds is proposed to to be intensfied. The following are some of the specific aspects to which special attention will be devoted :

  1. Evaluation of drought resistant varieties if groundnut and mustard for being grown under rain-fed conditions.
  2. Breeding of short duration varieties of groundnut, having dormancy of seed, for culiivation. under irr gared conditions so as to fit into an intensive cropping pattern.
  3. breeding of varieties of groundnut resistant to pest and tikka disease.
  4. Development of measures for correcting soil acidity in the eastern region where rainfall conditions are otherwise generally favourable for groundnut cultivation.
  5. With regard to mustard, there is need for breeding of early maturing varieties of toria.
  6. There is also need for standardisation of seed multiplication techniques for mustard.
  7. In regard to castor, significant sucess has already been achieved in reducing the growth period and increasing the popula-ii'm of the plans. However, further work is necessary with regard to certain agronomic problems.
  8. Intensive researches on breeding, agronomy. soil and water management and diseases and pests and technology of processing of soyabean will be taken up.


7.149. Soyabean crop has been raised on a limited and scattered scale in the past, particularly in the hilly are^s of Northern India. Its cultivation could not be extended to the rest of the country due to several reasons. The main impediments to extension have been the lack of appropriate varieties suited for culture under varying conditions of day length and temperature, the difficulty of using the grain for cooking as a pulse, the nutty or beany fiavour which is not liked by the people and lastly the lack of suitable markets. Recent investigations have, however, shown that under proper conditions of culture, yields can be significantly improved. There is a good scope for raising it as an intercrop with mai/e in all such areas where September rains are inadequate for the cultivation of groundnut. Soyabean, because of its richness in protein (over 40 per cent) is in great demand by the antibiotic industry in the country as also by the babyfood manufacturers. With ai. ?ii content of 18-20 per cent. soyabean offers a good potential fr'r stepping up the availability of vegetable oils in the country, the danand for which far exceeds the supply. Experience has shown (hat after the extraction of oil by suitable processing, the Soyabean meal can be profitably used in human dietary as also for cattle feed.

7.150. There is a growing opinion in the country that Soyahsan is a promising crop and is potentialities should be fully tapped both for industrial uses and edible purposes. However, before extending the cultivation of the crop, it is considered necessary to organise, in the Fourth Plan, more comprehensive research of Soyabean on a national basis. An All-India coordinated project on Soyabean started tunciioning form April 1967 and more than 1,000 accessions of Soyabean varieties collected under the .scheme from the various parts of the country as well as from outside are being assessed at various centres, notably at the U.P. Agricultural University at Paninagar and the Jawaharal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya at Jabalpur. Work is also in progress on evolving suitable agronomic practices and control of diseases and pests.


7.151. In the Fourth Plan, the target is to increase production from a base level of 12 million tonnes to 15 million tonnes of sugarcane (in terms of gnr). The programme envisaged for sugarcane development is multi-pronged. Arrangements will be made for supply of good. disease free saed material to the fanner. Long use of the same seed material and double and triple rationing has resulted in various plant diseases and consequent reduction in the cane yield. In areas where sugar factories have taken positive interest in promoting cane development. significant improvements have been effected both in the quality and the yield or cane. This is particularly true of cooperative sugar factories in Maha-rashira and Gujarat and some of the private factories in the South. It is desirable that the sugar industry in general should be involved in propagating better cane varieties and in extension and development work.

7.152. There is need for agronomic research to determine the changes in the time of planting, fertilisation and irrigation in the north Indian sugar belt for increasing yield and sucrose content in the existing varieties. Other aspects to which agricultural research in sugarcane is intended to be directed are outlined below :

  1. Hectare yields of sugarcane, especially in northern India, which has almost half the area of sugarcane in the country, are low. Early-maturing varieties, with high yield and high .sugar content and recovery, need to be developed.
  2. Frost tolerant, or frost resistant, varieties are needed, especially for western U.P., Punjab. Haryana and parts of Rajasthan.
  3. Research is needed in developing varieties which give in one year as much yield, or more, as the adfiali crop does in Maha-rash'ra.
  4. Premature flowering decreases cane yields. Research, is needed for contro!-a ing it by breeding or by chemical and physical means,
  5. Red rot, wilt and virus diseases cause heavy losses to cane yields and sugar recovery. Research, is needed to. control them by breeding resistant varieties and by other means.
  6. Pests—including different kinds of borers -Pyrilla, Melananis scales (e.g. in Maharashtra), also cause heavy losses to sugarcane. Research in depth, including breeding resistant varieties, chemical control and biological control is needed.
  7. Much research is needed on mixed cropping with sugarcane e.g. with wheat and potato. This will require research in dates of planting, breeding of suitable varieties, methods of irrigation and manuring.


7.153. Investigations conducted have shown that sugarbeet can be successfully grown as a winter crop in the irrigated plains in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and western and terai areas of Ultar Pradesh. It is capable of giving yield of 30 to 50 tonnes of beetroots per hectare widi sugar content of 15-18 per cent and expected recovery of 12 to 13 per cent. At present both cane yield and sugar recoveries are lew in north-western India. Experiments have shown that the employment of sugar-bees: as raw material to supplement sugarcane would help in improving recoveries and extending the sugar season by about two months, resulting in lowering down the manufacturing cost of sugar. The additional benefit is that suparbeet being a 6-7 month crop, a kiwi-if crop (maize or paddy) can be raised in summer in the same field. It is also "possible to grow sugarbeet and sugar-cane as intercrops. Beets can be handled in the existing sugarcane factories by 'installing some additional equipment. The by-products of sugarbeet such as green tops, pulp and 'molasses are valuable cattle feeds. Based on these indications, it has been decided to undertake the development of sugarbeet at suitable locations in ih'e States of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Western Uttar Pradesh.

7.154. An All-India coordinated project on sugarbeet has been included in the Fourth Plan to carry forward investigations initiated in the past and also to tackle the various aspects of susarbeet research on a coordinated basis in the different 'potential areas with a multi-disciplinary approach. The tasks to which sugarbeel research will be directed in the Fourth Plan would relate to finding out the agricultural requirements of the sugarbeet crop in the different areas under varying agro-climatic conditions, technological investigations on processing the roots of sugarbeet and handling the by-products as also' the utilisation of the by-pro-ducts.


7.155. Production of tobacco for the Fourth Plan is estimated at 450 million kg. including 168 mil-Hon kg. of Virginia type against the base level of 350 millon kg. In order to achieve this target, it is p'oposed to develop the exportable type of tobacco .^ about 28,000 hectares in the light soil areas in Andhra Pradesh, Mysore, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, and undertake intensive development programme nn i 25,000 hectares of Virginia tobacco and supply essential inputs. Training facilities for the curers \\'W be strengthened.


7.156. Recent years have witnessed a distinct break through in potato cultivation. A series of h^h-yieldjng varieties of potato with varying duration of maturity have been edveloped. Some of them are highly resistant to the late blight diseases. There are several early bulking hybrids which are capable of °ivin" higher tuber yields within a period of 60 -90 days and, therefore admirably fit into the multi-cropping pattern. Along with the emergence of these varieties, a technique has been d.-velopsd for the organisation of virus-free quality seed production in the plains. This technique has ccme to be known as the 'Seed Plot Technique'. New varieties of potatoes have been issued as breeder stocks to various States for multiplication. Po;ato cultivation on an appreciable scale has thus developed in various States in the plains. The tempo under this programme will be mantained and developed. In the Fourth Plan, the objective is to raise the area under potato from 0.50 million hectares in 1967-68 to 1.13 million hectares.


7.157. Horticulture development in the Fourth Plan has been planned from two broad angles--(i) in increase the general production within the coui try to be able to supply certain minimum needs of the people, and (ii) to increase production with ;! view to achieving sizeable export of fresh fruits ;md fruit products. For putting new areas under orchards, a target of 440,000 hectares has been proposed which will comprise of 320,000 hectares on she plains and 120,000 hectares in the hills. Additionally, intensive cultivation measures will be adopted on an area of 200,000 hectares to bring about increased production from the existing plantations.

7.158. One of the most important programmes under horticulture relates to development of fruit development purposes. The principal stress is on development of bananas. If is envisaged to promote banana cultivation in about 16,000 hectares around seven -ma}or ports on the eastern and western coasts including the Union Territory of Goa. It is anticipated that. out of a total production of 400,000 tonnes of bananas, 100,000 tonnes will be of exportable variety. For undertaking this programme, a Banana Development Corporation is envisaged. Programmes have also been included for development of mango and pineapple for export purposes

Cashew Nut

7.159. In framing the programme for the development of cashewnut in the Fourth Plan, two allied asnects have been kept in view. The first relates to the growing export potential of this crop. The exports have risen from 41.8 lakh tonnes of processed nuts valued at Rs. 18.17 crores (at pre-' devaluation rate) in 1961-62 to Rs. 63.7 lakh tonnes valued at Rs. 60.93 crores (post-devaluation rates) in 1968. The Second aspect relates to the increasing gap between requirements and supply. While, according to the estimates of the Directorate of. Cashews Development, indigenous production has risen from about 69',500 tonnes of raw nuts in 1960-61 to 1.31 lakh tonnes of raw nuts in 1968-69. the dependence on imports of raw nuts from East African countries has also increased. Currently, such imports are of the order of 196,000 tonnes of raw nuts. On account of prospect of development of mechanized cashew industry in African countries, there is a strong likelihood of reduction in the availability of raw nuts to the processing industry in India.

7.160. The total requirements of raw cashew nuts during the Fourth Plan have been estimated at 350,000 tonnes. This is based on two assumptions. viz., an export target of 80.000 tonnes and internal consumtion of 7,500 tonnes of kernels. Compared to the existing level of production, this would mean a gap of 219.000 tonnes between sunply and demand of raw nuts. The objective in the Fourth Plan is to narrow this gap as far as possible. 76,000 additional tonnes of production is sought to be achieved through various developmental measures both in the State and Central Sectors of the Plan, propagate and distribute high-yielding planting material. About 275.0to cashew airlayers will be sought to be produced and distributed every year in Kerala, Mysore, Andhra Pradesh and the Union Territory of Goa.


7.162. The total area under coconut is currently estimated at about 90,000 hectares and the production at about 5,600 million nuts. Further development of this crop is of importance from the point of view of export of some of its products. At present, India earns foreign exchange of nearly Rs. 14 crores from the export of coir eoods and coconut oil cake. The development of this crop is also important from the angle of import substitution because the country imports annually copra to the tune of Rs, 2 to 3 crores to meet internal demand.

7.163. The total demand for coconut by the end of tile Plan is estimated at 8,000 million nuts. This would mean a gap of 2,400 million nuts over the existing production. Taking the production potential into account, it is proposed to bridge this gap in the Plan by producing 1.000 million additional nuts. Programmes to this effect have been included both in the State and the Central Sector of the Plan.

7.164. The State Plan sector includes a sizeable outlay of which will be used for both short range and long range measures. Part of the outlay will be spent on demonstrations and distribution of duality seedlings. The remaining outlay is meant for initiating package programme. In the Central sector, major emphasis will be laid on an annual production of 33,000 tall dwarf hybrid seedlings which are high-yielding and tolerant to diseases. Another important scheme pertains to establishment of an elite seed farm to serve as a nucleus plantation centre of high-yielding seed nuts in Mysore State. Steps will also be taken under the Plan for some increase jn the area under coconut.7.16. The Slate Sector of the Plan contains provisions for bringing new areas under cashew. The targets is 207.200 hectares. This will include 91,600 hectares under departmental plantation. In the Central Sector prime importance has been given to organising a cashew package programme. The components of this programme include organisation of about 1,500 demonstration plots: coverage of 24.768 hectares of non-departmental plantations and 12,328 hectares of departmental plantations by plant protection measures. It is also proposed fo


7.165. The rcauirement of arecanut by the end of the Fourth Plan has been estimated at 150.000 tonnes as against the existing production of 126,000 tonnes. The strategy of development in the Plan is not to increase any area under arecanut. but to aim at intensive cultivation measures by organising package programmes. The development activities will include provision for demonstration plots, distribution of seedling and spraying of pesticides for the control of various diseases.


7.166. The following table shows the present level of production and the targets for certah spice crops for the Fourth Plan:

Table 10 : Targets for Spice Crop
(thousand tonnes)

sl. no. crop present Produciton target fourth plan
(0) (1) (2) (3)
1 pepper 23 42
2 ginger 21 26
3 turmeric 113 128

Pepper is a most important spice crop from ths point of view of international trade as 90 per cent of the production is exported. The total foreign exchange earnings of this crop are currently of the order of Rs. 10-12 crores annually. The export target at the end of the Plan for pepper has been put" at 34,000 tonnes. In this context, stepping up the production to 42,000 tonnes is of special importance. Apart from organised package programmes for various spice crops, the Plan envisages emphasis on rapid multiplication of a hybrid variety of pepper called Panniyur-1 which is capable of giving four times the normal yield of the available varieties. Other programmes contemplated relate to control of wilt disease in Kerala and popularisation of plant protection measures.


7.167. Lac is an export-oriented crop; indeed. over 90 per cent of its total production is exported to foreign countries. Previously India held a virtual monopoly in the world trade in lac, but now Thailand has emerged as a keen competitor and in recent. years, is accounting for as much as 40-50 per rent of the world trade in lac. It is necessary to improve the Quality of Indian lac. Keeping in view the fact that the world consumption of lac is around 30.000 tonnes of seedlac and shellac annually which will be equivalent to over 60.000 tonnes of slicklac, an export target of 24,000 tonnes of seedlac and shellac and a production target of 52.000 tonnes of sticklac has been fixed to'- the Fourth Five Year Plan. In order to achieve this target, it is proposed to establish broodlac farms for supply of seeds cf superior strains to the cultivators and to undertake package programme for adoption of improved agricultural practices.

VI land reforms

7 168. A review of land reforms reveals much that ^os been achieved as w-H os a rreat deal that requires urgent attention. There are many gaps between objectives and legislation and between the laws and their implementation. It is necessary to iden;ify the deficiencies and take steps for their elimination. One of the important tasks of the Fourth Plan will be to try and ensure that land reforms become a reality in the village and the field

7.169. The principal measures relate to the abolition of intermediary tenures, reform of the tenancy system, ceiling on ownership of land and consolidation of holdings. Progress has been made in all these respects over the past 20 years. Zamindaries, iagirs. jnams and other intermediary tenures have been practically abolished, bringing 20 million tenants into direct relationship with the State and making available to the State Governments several million acres of cultivable land, which has been distributed to landless agriculturists. Provisions for security of tenure and regulation of rent have been adopted by several States for bringing tenants into direct relationship with the 'State and conferring on them the rights of ownership, in areas where intermediary tenures did not obtain. As a result, about 3 million tenants and share-croppers have acquired ownership of more than 7 million acres. Laws imposing ceiling on agricultural holdings have been enacted, and about 2.4 million acres of surplus lands in excess of ceiling limits have been declared as such or taken possession of by Government. Tenants, uneconomic holders and landless agricni-turists arc being settled on these lands. The land reform proeramme adopted in the various States has helped to establish owner-cultivation over large areas. Consolidation of holdings has been undertaken in a number of States and measures have been initiated for the prevention of fragmentation.

7.170. There have, nevertheless, been shortcomings in implementation and the progress has been slow in manv States. The position was reviewed bv the Land Reforms Implementation Committee of the National Development Council which, "i 'ts report in Aueust 1966. proposed measures for securing expeditious and effective implementation of the land reform legislation. The matter was again examined in the Chief Ministers' Conference which was convened in November 1969 to review the progress and identify the saps and weaknesses in the existing laws and their implementation. The main points which would receive attention durin" the Fourth Plan period are set out i" the paragraphs that follow.

Abolifion of Intermediaries

7.171 Intermediary tenures have been abolished DMrficallv all over the country. Certain non-rvot-wari tenures, however, still remain. Legislation has to be eracted for pbolirion of temnoramy settled estates in Assam, certain inams and tenures in Kerala. Maharashfra and Tamil Nadu, Goa, Dili and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Legislation has yet :o he completed in respect of muttadari and mal-guaz'ari tenures in Agency tracts and inams in Tclen-gana area of Andhra Pradesh and Devasthan ihams in Gujarat. It has been decided to take action of abolition of these remnants of the intermediary tenures by 1970.

7.172. Lands which should have vested in the Stale or settled with tenants have been retained by some intermediaries by evasion and obstruction. Action should be taken by the State {no moto for scrutiny of such cases and effective implementation of intermediary abolition laws.

7.173. Progress made in the payment of compensation to cx-imermediaries in some Stales has been slow. The assessment and payment of compensation couid be expedited, particularly in Bihar. Orissa, 'Rajasthan. Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

Tenacy Reforms

7.174. There has been leasing of land on ;i considerable scale, often unwritten, even in areas where, intermediary tenures did not obtain, and sub-leasing in areas where such tenures existed. Legislation has been enacted in a number of States )or converting such tenants and sub-ienants into owners. .Considerable progress has been made in i.his regard in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh'and Rajasthan. Similar provisions have also bscn made in respect of sub-tenants in Uttar Pradesh and in respect of under-raiyats (oiher than Bargadars) in West Bengal. As a result, according to: information received from Slate Governments. about 3 million tenants and share-cropper's have acquired ownership as indicated in {able 11.

Table 11 : Ownership for Tenants

sl. no (0) stale/union territory number Tenants benetited

('in 000's)

area in res-peci of which owne ship is con-i'erred

(in 100 hectares.)

1 Gujarat 462 970
2 Madhya Pradesh 420 n.a.
3 Maharashtra 800 613
4 Punjab 22 60
5 Rajasthan 199 382
6 Andhra Pradesh ("rclcngana area) 13 82
7 Delhi 29 16
8 Himachal Pradesh . 24 11
9 Tripura 10 5
10 Uttar. Rradesh 1500 810
11 West Bengal n.a. 324

7.175. In spite of these measures, it is estimated that tenants' households constitpte 23.56 per cent of total cultivating households. The proportion is higher in certain States such as Bihar, Haryana, jammii mid Kashmir, Kerahi. Mysore, Punjab, and Himachal Pradesh and the Union Territories of Pondichcrry and Tripura. The extent of tenancy is indicated below :-

Table 12 Percentage of Leased-in Households to Total Cultivating Household-State-wise

sl.no. slate/union territory percentage
(0) 1 (2)
1 Bihar 37
2 lami-nu and Kashmir 25
3 Kerola 31
4 Mysore 25
5 Punjab and Haryana 39
6 Himachal Pradesh 27
7 Poiidicherry 45
8 Tripura 36

7.176. Many of the tenants and sub-tenants who had acuuired permanent rights have come into direct contact with the State. The tenants and sharecropper,- who s^I! continue as such are lenants-at-vvill or are protected tenants subject to the landlord's right of resumption. Such tenants and sharecroppers with insecure tenure are estimated to con-s.itute 82 per cent of the total number of tenants, mainly in the States of Andhra Pradesh. Assam, Haryana, Punjab. Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

7.177. it has been observed that under the present arrangement of informal tenancy and share-cropping, the landlord considers it unwise to invest in improving his land; likewise, the share-croppsr or ,he tenant is either unable or reluctant to invest inputs like fertilisers. The insecurity of tenancy has not only impeded the widespread adoption of ,:hc high-yielding varieties but in some cases led io social and agrarian tensions. In the present con-iext. therefore, it is essential that a cultivating tenant or a share-cropper should have effective security of tenure of the land he cultivates and the existing tenancies declared non-resumable and permanent.

7.178. For bringing a sense of security among tenants and sub-tenants, the following measures hilve been proposed to be taken :

  1. To declare all tenancies non-resumable and premanent (except in cases of landholders who are serving in the defence forces or suffering from a specified disability
  2. 'Where resumption has been permitted and where applications- have already been made. arrangements for, quick disposal of such applications; where there is a likelihood of large number of evictions as a result of resumption, for further restricting it with a view to reducing then (.(mber of cases of resumption;
  3. Regulation of "voluntary surrenders" prohibiting landowners from taking possession of land at present tenanted and empowering the Government or local authority to settle other tenants thereon;
  4. Provision for complete security of tenure in respect of homestead lands on which cultivators, artisans and agricultural labourers have constructed their dwelling houses;
  5. Implementation of legislation relating to security of tenure to sub-tenants and ensuring that the provisions of law are not circumvented by the landlords;
  6. Provision for penalty for wrongful evictions.

7.179. Closely connected with t'he problem of security of tenure is the regulation of rent payable by ihe cultivating tenant to the landlord. Efforts to confer a measure of security of tenure become meaningless if the the rent remains arbitrary and beyond the paying capacity of the tenant. In such cases the tenant gets info arrears for payment of ren.1 and is obliged to surrender tenancy on demand by the landholder. Besides, a higher rate of rent serves as a disincentive and an impediment to investment. Legislation for regulation of rent has been enacted in practically ail States but in some .of them the statutory rents themselves are on the high side. It is proposed to bring (hem down in due course to the level recommended in the Third Plan. that is, one-fourth or one-fifth of the gross produce and adopt necessary measures to ensure that the statutory rates of rent are observed.

7.180. The tenant should'have easy access to loans and should be able to make improvements in respect of land cultivated by him. In case of compulsory eviction, he should receive compensation for improvements made by him. Provision has been made to this effect in certain States. Such provisions are proposed to be extended to other States. .

7.181. In order to enable a cultivating tenant to 'participate in agricultural production programmes. it is necessary that, besides enjoying complete security of tenure, he should have the right to hypo-(hecats his interest in land for. obtaining institutional credit; Such provision has bqen made .in some Slates. It is.proppsed to include.suitable provision w land laws in other States. It is also proposed to review the existing laws in a number of . S.aies which restrict alienation of land belonging ito the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Ofhsr backward classes with a view to ensuring institutional credit for improvement of land, provision of irrigation and other productive uses.

7.182. Many of the cultivating tenants are small Insiders. To some extent, their problems of credit and other inputs would be tackled with (he creation of Small Farmers' Development Agencies. In respect of cultivating tenants the success of the scheme would depend, among other things, on certain prerequisites such as the maintenance of up-to-date record of rights and the implementation of land reforms.

7.183. It has been recommended in the Third Plan that steps should be taken to complete the programme for conferring rights of ownership on tenants. There is no doubt that conferment of ownership on tenants enables the cultivator to take more interest in the development of land. He is iilio able 10 raise more funds on security of his additional rights in land for agricultural development. Legislation has been enacted in several States to bring tenants into direct contact with the State. The implementation of the programme of legislation has been completed in the former intermediary areas in Uttar Pradesh (subtenants) and West Bengal (under-raiyats other than Bargadars) and Delhi and it is in an advanced .stage of implementation in Gujarat and Maharashfra. Considerable progress has also been made in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab ..'lid Tripura. Tt is proposed to expedite the programme of converting tenants into owners and com-phlu iis implementation by the end of the Fourth Plan. Some of the State Governments have under consideration proposals for financing purchase of ownership rights by tenants through land mortgage banks and nationalised commercial banks.

7.184. Creation of. a tenancy in future has been prohibited in some States. It is proposed to permit leasing in future only in special cases such as of a person suffering from disability or in case a person joins th^ defence services. In such cases, the tenancy would be for a period of. 3 years at a time subject to renewal unless the disability ceases. In case the person belongs to the defence services, it is recognised, that he should, be able to take possession of the tenanted land without any ;delay,

Ceiling on Land Holdings

7.185. Legislation has been enacted in almost all the States providing for a ceiling on land holdings. Provisions relating to level of ceilings, transfers and exemptions from eeilings differ tonsiderably from State to State, Insome States is'apptidable to the lands held by each landholder rather than to the aggregate area held by all the members of a family. Similarly in some States adequate provision has not been made for disregarding of transfers and partitions subsequent to the date of announcement of the decision to impose ceilings on holdings and the exemptions are too many permitting evasion of ceiling on a considerable scale. Even the legislation as it exists has not been pursued and implemented effectively. As a result only about 964,800 hectares have so far been declared surplus after scrutiny of the statements submitted by substantial holders out of which about 640,000 hectares have been taken possession of by the State Governments. While some States like Andhra Pradesh have decided to take possession of the surplus lands only when funds are available for payment of compensation, in others as in West Bengal and Gujarat work has been held up due to litigation resorted to by substantial landholders. The programme of distribution of surplus land has been taken up in recent years in a number of States. But there is still a large gap in most of the States between the area which has been taken possession of and the area distributed. Only 464,176 hectares are reported to have been finally distributed. It has been observed that this gap has been due to. in some cases, administrative difficulties in selecting. It has been observed that this gap has been due to, in some cases, administrative difficulties in selecting the allottees in accordance with the rules made under ceiling Acts, stay order's obtained from Hish Courts and inferior quality of land surrendered by the landholders. These matters came up for consideration at the Chief Ministers' Conference held in November 1969. It was decided to review the provisions in the existing legislation in regard to level of ceilings, transfers and exemptions in the light of recent technological developments and social requirements and hasten the implementation of imposition of ceiling and distribution of surplus land to landless agricultural workers on a systematic basis. State Governments have responded favourably to the suggestion. In Kerala and Tamil Nadu the level of ceiling has been brought down substantially by recent legislation. Similar action is likely to be taken by a number of other States.

7.186. There is potentially an important link between land reform and amelioration of the living conditions of landless agricultural workers. Where State Governments are in possession of cultivable waste lands or have come in possession of surplus lands, it is proposed to concentrate efforts on systematic re-distribution and resettlement of lands and to extend credit and other facilities to allottees to improve their lands. Tenancy reform measures by facilitating wider adoption of high-yielding varieties. intensive cultivation and multi-cropping measures, may increase employment opportunities for agricultural labour. Another indirect effect of conferment of security of tenure on tenants and sharecroppers is a check on increase the number of landless agricultural workers competing for the limited opportunities. These measures along with specific programmes for rural works and for ensuring minimum wages on the one hand and general economic development creating non-farm employment opportunities on the other, are expected to improve the conditions of agricultural workers.

7.187. In this context, there is scope for proper appreciation of the resettlement programmes for landless agricultural labourers vis-a-vis other schemes for reform of tenure. Studies made so far with regard to certain selected agricultural colonisation schemes have revealed various problems like delays in execution, lack of coordination, duplication of agencies, faulty selection of settlers, and under-utilisation of resources. The re-emphasises the need for proper planning and programming at the initial stage.

7.188. A mention may be made of two surveys which have been conducted for locating culturable waste lands. So far 1.2 million acres have been located in blocks of more than 250 acres and 4.6 million acres in smaller blocks. In addition to this. considerable areas would be available under the command of major irrigation projects. Some lands would also be available for distribution as a result of Bhoodan and Qramdan. There appears to be areat need for the State Governments to work out viable schemes for settlement of lands which are available for distribution to landless agricultural labourers.

7.189. In a large number of States, legislation also includes provision for security of tenure in respect of homestead lands on which tenants and agricultural workers including: members of the weaker sections like Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other Backward Classes have constructed their dwellings and houses. Such provisions are as important as security of tenure in respect of agricultural lands and should be provided where they do not exist.

Consolidation of Holdings

7.190. An obstacle to development of agriculture arises out of the fragmentation of holdings. Most holdings are not only small but widely scattered. Consolidation has been an important factor in the agricultural development of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. It is proposed to pursue programmes vigorously in other States. Together, the State Plans provide Rs. 28.4 crores for consolidation of holdings in the Fourth Plan. The programme can be enlarged to the extent that an appropriate charge is levied on the farmer who benefits from the operation.

7.191. An obstacle to consolidation is the wide difference in land values within the village itself. These differences are mainly due to lack of irrigation facilities. Once irrigation is possible or there is ground water to be utilised, the difference in land values does not remain so wide. If consolidation is attempted in such areas, the problem can be solved quicker. Areas which have already been brought under irrigation projects or within their command and areas with irrigation potential may be taken up on a priority basis for consolidation. This will also ensure efficient land and water use.

7.192. It has been observed that the programme made progress and yielded the desired results mainly where the schemes of consolidation of holdings included rectangulation and reshaping of fields and provision for farm roads and expansion of village abadi in accordance with the requirements of the people. In schemes where the fields were not reorganised and the consolidation operations confined to a lew mutual exchanges of scattered holdings, the object of the programme was not fully achieved. The State Governments may also consider during consolidation operations a reorganisation of holdings so that the small and uneconomic holdings are re-allocated land in one block facilitating special programmes for development of such holdings. Once land has been consolidated in any area, it is also proposed to take measures to prevant further fragmentation of holdings in such areas.

Problems of Implementation

7.193. A serious constraint on the expeditions implementation of land reforms and also on the availability of credit and other inputs to the cultivating tenant has been lack of correct and up-to-date land records, including record of tenancies. Much has been done during recent years to build up land records andafairl> good documentation of ownership is now available in most parts of the country. But there are many States in which records of tenants do not exist or remain incomplete or are out of date. During the next five years it should be possible to complete a revision of the record of rights in respect of considerable areas where re-survey and settlement operations have already been undertaken. States have generally included the scheme for revising land records and preparation and maintenance ot record of tenancies in the State Plan, in addition to the normal non-Plan expenditure.

7.194. The administrative tasks involved in the implementation of land reforms require a complete record of rights showing ownership and other interests in the land and the terms and conditions of the tenancies. In the implementation of land reforms the role of the administration is crucial. The agency charged with the implementation of land reforms is usually the revenue staff. In some States the subordinate officials have insufficient acquintance with the provisions of the law, while the potential bene-liciaries are often unaware of their rights. The implementation of the law is frequently ineffective. It is proposed to organise in-service training and orientation courses to inculcate a sense of purpose and awareness in the administration besides effecting improvements in the procedures. It is also proposed to lake measures to create awareness of the provisions of the law among the beneficiaries and the public in general. Administrative action can be more effective if efforts are at the same time made to enlist the support and assistance of local public workers and secure the participation of the likely beneficiaries in the implementation of the reforms.

7.195. Periodical evaluation of land reforms programmes is proposed to be undertaken both by the States and at the Centre through suitable organisations and institutions. It is also considered necessary to provide for the continuous study of the problems of land reforms as well as the techniques of implementation adopted in different States with, a view to imparting training both in methodology and execution. It has accordingly been decided to establish for this purpose a Land Reforms Centre at Poona in the campus of the Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics.

ANNEXURE-1 Targets of Production

sl. no commodity unit base level '-production target of addl. production 1969- 74 estimated production 1973-74 percentage increase of col. (5) over col. (3)
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
I fool/grains million tonnes 98 31 129 31.6
2 rice million tonnes 39.0 . i3.0 52.0 33.3
3 wteat million tonnes 18.0 6.0 24.0 33.3
4 Maize million tonnes 6.2 1.8 8.0 29.0
5 jowar million tonnes 10.0 5.0 15.0 50.0
6 bajra million tonnes 5.1 1.9 7.0 37.3
7 other cereals inilliiiii tonnes 7.2 0.8 8.0 11.1
8 pulses million tonnes 12.5 2.5 15,0 20.0
9 Oil seeds million tonnes 18.5 2 10.5 24
10 sugarrarte (gur) million tonnes 12 3 15 '25
11 cotton Diillion tonnes 6 1 8 " 33
12 jute million bales 6.2 1.2 7.4 19
13 tobacco million kgs. 350 100 450 29
14 coconut million nuts 56.00 1000 6600 18
15 arecanut thou.tonnes 126 24 150 19
16 cashewnut thou.tonnes 131 76 207 58
17 pepper thou.lonnes 23 19 42 83
18 thou. tonnes thou. tonnes 35 17 52 49

ANNEXURE II Selected Programme Targets—Fourth Five Year Plan

Sl. B 10. item unit 1968-69 anticipated fourth plan 1973-74 targets
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4)
1 High-yielding varieties mill. hectares 9.20 25.00
T paddy mill. hectares 2.60 10.10
.? wheat mill. hectares 4.80 7.70
4 maize mill. hectares 0.40 1.20
5 jowar raill. hectares 0.70 3.20
6 bajra mill. hectares 0.70 2.80
7 multiple cropping mill. hectares 6.00 15.00
chemical fertilisers (rwnirption)
8 initrogenous(N) mill.tonnes 1.14 3,20
9 phosphatic(Po) mill. tonnes 0.39 1.40
10 potassic (K0.) mill. tonnes 0.16 0.90
organic manures and green manuring
11 urban compost mill. tonnes 4.00 6.50
12 green manuring mill. hectares 8.46 12.00
13 plani protection mill. hectares 40.00 80.00
14 minor irrigation mill. hectares (additional) 1.40 7.20
15 soil conservation on agricultural lands mill. hectares (additional) 1.44 5.65
loans advanced through cooperatives
16 short and medium term Rs. erores 490 750
17 long term Rs. crores 120 700

'For the Fourth Plan period as a whole. It excludes loans of the order ofRs. 200 crores on schemes refinanced by Agricultural Refinance Corporation.

ANNEXURE-III Public Sector Outlays on Agriculture and Allied Sectors
(Rs. crores)

sl. no. Head of development states union territories centrally sponsored centre fourth pian
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
1 agricultural production 331.721 22.57' 46.303 19.64 420.23
2 development of small farmers and agricultural labour       815.00 115.00
3 research and education       85.01 85.00
4 minor irrigation 501.53 6.18   8.00 515.71
5 soil conservation 123.90 5.41 29.44 0.63 159.38
6 area development 22.04 0.02   16.26 38.32
7 animal husbandary 70.91 5.40 5.25 12.50 94.06
8 dairying and milk supply 39.77 1.95   97.25 138.97
9 fisheries 44.88 -1.4 3 6,00 28.00 83.31
10 forests 73.12 14.31 1.39 3.73 92.55
11 warehouiing, storage and marketing 6.39 0.63   87.00 94.02
12 food processing and subsidiary food     2.50 16.10 18.60
13 central support to financial institutions       324.00 324.00
14 buffer stocks of agricultural commodities .       255.00 255.00
!5 cooperation 119.21 4.61 24.50 30.25 178.57
16 commodity development 84.69 4.94 1 11.45 5.90 115.46
17 panchayats 7.35 1.13
18 Total 1425.51 71.58 126.83 1104.26 2728.18
  • includcs provision for Research and Education and Development of Small Farmers.
  • -'Includes outlays on dry farming.
  • ''This. includes an outlay of Rs. 95 crores provided for Indian Dairy Corporation.

ANNEXURE- IV Outlays for Agriculture and Allied Sectors—Third Plan, Three Annual Plans and Fourth Plan
(Rs. crores)

sl.no. head of development third plan three annual plans (1966-69) fourth plan
(0) (1) C2) (3) (4)
1 agricultural production 203 252 420
2 development of small farmers and agricultural labour     115
3 research and education 1 1 85
4 minor irrigation 270 314 516
5 soil conservation 77 88 159
6 area development 2 13 38
7 animal husbandry 43 34 94
8 dairying and milk supply 34 26 139
9 fisheries 23 37 83
10 forests 46 44 93
11 warehousing, storage and marketing 27 15 94
12 food processing and subsidiary food 1 1 19
13 central support to financial institutions 40 324
14 buffer stocks of agricultural commodities - 140 255
15 cooperation 76 64 179
16 commodity development 288 99 115
17 panchayats      
18 Total 1089 1166 2728

'Included under Agricultural Production.
•Includes provision for Research and Education and development of Small Farmers made in the State Plans.
' includes outlays of Rs. 95 crores provided for Indian Dairy Corporation.

ANNEXURE- V Progress of /Consolidation of Holding's

    area (thousand hectares) expenditure (Rs. lakhs)  
sl. no. state/union territory level a 1960-61 ichieved-


cumulative 1968-69 fourth , plan programme level anticipated 1973-74 1960-61 1965-66 1968-69 1969-70 (anticipated) 1970-71 (budget provision) fourth plan outlay (Rs. lakhs)
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
1 Andhra Pradesh 127 337 337   337 11.00 16.66        
2 Assam 2 2 41 43 4.34 0.26 0.10 5.55
3 Bihar 24 71 71 165 236 9.52 20.36 6.64 4.50 24.00 134.50
4 Gujarat1 375 652 848 410 1258 40.45 42.64 36.00 12.85 11.90 60.00
5 Haryana 121 2 121' 24.00 6.82 10.33
6 Jammu and Kashmir   22 24 41 65   16.89 15.92 5.90 7.00  
7 Madhya Pradesh1 1560 2378 3019 1230 4249 72.37 59.30 61.99 24.00 (2.35)' 28.00 (2.57) 140.00
8 Maharashtra1 626 2202 3732 3345 7077 37.86 75.17 28.81 80.00 (86.00)3 9.00 (73.00)' 125.00 (370)8
9 Mysore 406 772 1322 13.22 24.84 16.02 22.95 (6.03)8 (6.04)'  
10 Punjab 6011 9203 9203   9203 877.01 491.85 40.56 (46.00)'  
11 Rajasthan 571 1722 1744 1744 41.06 41.04 2.20  
12 Uttar Pradesh 2201 6482 8881 3400 12281 768.57 1112.33 1024.03 406.00 415.00 2000.00
13 West Bengal 710 710 1.16 0.76 1.00 11.00
14 Delhi 83 83 83 83 8.28 0.76 (0.76) (1.84)
15 Himachal Pradesh 66 149 185 82 267 10.18 26.60 19.60 5.00 (3.04)' 5.50 (3.20) 30.00
16 Total 12050 24073 29572 9424 38996 1901.14 1919.86 1288.20 546.85 (98.18)8 511.83 (132.65)3 2506.05 (370.00)3

Includes progress prior to April 1951.
•Work completed.
•Non-Plan figures.

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