|6th Five Year Plan||
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|| Planning Commission
The concept of the MNP emerged and crystallised out of the experience of the previous plans that neither growth nor social consumption can be sustained, much less accelerated, without being mutually supportive.
14.2 The programme is essentially an investment in human resource development. The provision of free or subsidised services through public agencies is expected to improve the consumption levels of those living below the poverty line and thereby improve the productive efficiency of both the rural and urban workers. This integration of social consumption programmes with economic development programmes is necessary to accelerate growth and to ensure the achievement of plan objectives.
14.3 In the absence of such a programme, the pressure for investments in the development of infrastructure and production sectors left relatively small allocations for social services. Even such outlays as were available were the first to get reduced in any conflict of priorities created by resource constraint. Further, the benefits of social services cannot reach the poorest without conscious efforts to that end. Disparities in social consumption obtain not only between income groups but also between areas. The level of development of the various social services and infrastructure varies widely from State to State.
14.4 The Minimum Needs Programme lays down the urgency for providing social services according to nationally accented norms within p time bound programme. Its allocations are earmarked and it seeks to ensure the necessary provision of resources.
14.5 The programme introduced in the Fifth Five Year Plan will continue during the Sixth Plan. Its components are as follows:
14.6 For optimising benefits, these programmes have to be taken as a package and related to specific areas and beneficiary groups. A sectoral approach in which programmes are formulated and implemented depart-mentally will not be adequate either for the overall develoment of the area or for bringing about the desired distribution of benefits. The need for integration is especially greater at the micro-level where the programmes are implemented.
14.7 With the Sixth Five Year Plan 198085, this programme would enter the seventh year of its implementation. During the past years States such as Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kamataka have made good progress, while States like Madhya Pradesh, Raiasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal and the North Eastern States have lagged behind.
14.8 The approved outlays and expenditure on the programme from its beginning in the Fifth Plan are as follows:
Table 14.1 Outlay and Expenditure on Minimum Needs Programme 197480
14.9 The present data base of physical achievements is weak and some systematic arrangements .are required to be made to build it and maintain it up to date. The position is discussed in detail under each component of the programme.
14.10 The components of the programme would basically be the same as for the Fifth Plan 197479. A total provision of Rs. 5807 crores has been made in the Plan as against Rs. 2607 crores for the Fifth Plan. Targets have been fixed after taking into consideration financial and physical constraints so that the programme is a realistic one. The outlays to be provided would continue to be earmarked so that the investment under these programmes is assured. It is expected that this programme coupled wi,th various other programmes of rural development would enhance opportunities for emioyment and improved life of the rural poor. A high level machinery for monitor-iag the implementation of the programme at Central and State level would need to be set up, which would also ensure improvement in data base. The physical constraiants of the programme would be kept under constant review to achieve the stated objectives and effort will be made to overcome them.~The norms, targets and outlays for the different components of the programme are given in the Amiexure 14.1.
14.11 The objective continues to be the universalisation of elementary education. But taking into consideration the progress made in the various States and Union Territories, it is proposed through the formal system, to achieve this objective in two stages, i.e. 95 per cent of enrolment in the age group 611 and 50 per cent in the age group 1114 by 1985 and universal enrolment in the age group 614 by 1990. The availability of funds will not be allowed to stand in the way of more rapid universalisation of primary education wherever it can be achieved. The Planning Commission will keep this matter under review. The formal system would be supplemented by non-formal education. In achieving cent per cent enrolment for the age group 611, the constraint is predominantly the socio-economic circumstances of families below the poverty line. This aspect will hence need special attention.
14.12 The position in respect of elementary education varies from State to State and would continue to be so at the end of the Sixth Plan even though steady progress would be maintained in all the educationally backward States. As against 13 States and Union Territories, which are yet to unwersalise primary education for boys in 1979-80, their number would be reduced to just 4 by 1984-85, these being Haryana (93.4 per cent coverage expected), Kama-taka (86.2 per cent), Rajasthan (94.3 per cent) and Uttar Pradesh (97.0 per cent). In the case of girls education, there is a wide variation in coverage from about 30 per cent in Rajasthan to virtually complete coverage in States like Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland. Punjab and Tamil Nadu in 1979-80, The gap would be reduced and the lowest expected coverage is about 43 per cent in Rajasthan in 1984-85. With a view to making up this deficiency the States lagging behind would need to strengthen the non-formal classes for elementary education.
14.13 In regard to enrolment in classes VIVIII, the target for formal education of 50 per cent in relation to the population of 1114 would be achieved in 23 States and Union Territories; those lagging behind would be Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, and Arunachal Pradesh. These States have a backlog to be Cleared in respect of primary education tor which concerted efforts would be made during the Sixth Plan. Universalisation of middle school education in these States as also in others would be a major task to be taken up during 1985-90.
14.14 Special efforts will have to be made to reach backward and remote areas and the more socially and economically disadvantaged, specially girls and children belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, who constitute the bulk of non-starters and drop-outs. At present, out of every 100 children that enter Class I, only 36 complete Class V. The proportion of drop-outs has remained almost unchanged since the beginning of the planning in the country. Therefore, efficiency of the system will have to be improved to retain students. Appropriate incentive programmes will be designed to ensure regular presence of the students. On this basis, an outlay of Rs. 905 crores has been provided for this programme in the Plan 198085.
14.15 Non-formal education ior adults, particularly in the productive age group 1535 years would also be part of the elementary education component of the MNP. The target will be 100 per cent coverage of the age group 1535 years by 1990. As the programme is just developing, it is difficult to lay down the target for 1980-85. An outlay of Rs. 128 crores has been provided for adult education under this component. Thus the total outlay on elementary education in the Plan 1980-85 is Rs. 1033 crores i.e. Rs. 905 crores plus Rs. 128 crores.
14.16 Rural health infrastructure would be further strengthened in order to achieve the objective of Health-for-All by 2000 A.D. The norms envisaged are:
14.17 The Community Health Volunteer scheme and the scheme of training and employment of multipurpose workers will be continued under the MNP. It is proposed to increase the number of Community Health Volunteers from 1.40 lakhs as on April 1, 1980 to 3.60 lakhs by 1985. 40,000 sub-centres will be added to the 50,000' centres existing on 1-4-1980. This would account for about 74 per cent of the total number of 122,000 sub-centres to be set up on the basis of mid-1984 rural population. Additional 600 Primary Health Centres will be set up during 1980-85 and priority will be given to tribal areas. In addition to the existing 1,000 Subsidiary Health Centres, another 1,000 will be added during 1980-85 by converting the rural dispensaries into Subsidiary Health Centres. All these Subsidiary Health Centres will in subsequent Plans be converted into Primary Health Centres. Thus there will be 6,000 PHCs and 2,000 Subsidiary Health Centres. The Community Health Centre (CHC), a modified form of the upgraded 30 bedded hospital,, would provide for necessary specialities of gynaecology, paediatrics, surgery and medicine along with the provision of beds. In addition to the existing 340 rural hospitals, 174 new rural hospitals (CHC) will be set up in the Plan period.
14.18 The backlog of construction works of sub-centres, PHC buildings and residential accommodation, along with construction works of new units will be taken up and completed to the extent resources are available. A total provision of Rs. 577 crores has been made for Rural Health for 1980-85.
Rural Water Supply
14.19 The total number of problem villages conforming to the following criteria is estimated to be 1.90 lakh as on 1-4-1980:
14.20 During the Sixth Plan, the effort will be to cover all the problem villages of the three categories mentioned above. With the financial provisions made in the State Plans, it will be possible to achieve this objective except in certain difficult areas in the hill and desert regions where, because of physical constraints, the programme may take a longer time.
14.21 A recent study made by the Programme Evaluation Organisation of the Planning Commission has shown that in the past the scheduled castes and other weaker sections have not gained proportionately from the facilities created for water supply under the Minimum Needs Programme. In this context, during the Sixth Plan period, special attention will need to be paid to the location of safe drinking water points in a manner such that these Communities can benefit fully.
14.22 The average cost per village for providing safe drinking water varies widely according to the type of facility such as hand pumps, wells or piped water supply. In Karnataka for example, it is Rs. 1600, while in Nagaland it is Rs. 2.16 lakhs. In Punjab where only pipe water supply schemes are being implemented it is Rs. 4.26 lakhs. On the basis of average cost per village in each State, the cost of the programme during 1980-85 is estimated to be around Rs. 2007 crores and provision has been made accordingly.
14.23 Under the Fifth Plan the norm was to link up all villages with a population of 1500 or more with all weather roads. It is proposed to connect with roads all the remaining villages with a population of 1500 and above and 50 per cent of the total number of villages in the population group 1000-1500 by 1990. On 1-4-80, the number of villages remaining to be linked according to the above norms was about 40,000. About 50 per cent of the physical programme, i.e. 20,000 villages would be completed by 1985 for which an outlay of Rs. 1165 crores has been provided in the Plan, though some of the States namely, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa may lag behind in achieving the MNP objective.
14.24 In tlie Fifth Plan the target was to cover 40 per cent of the rural population under electrification. It has been decided to shift the criterion of population coverage to village coverage and to ensure that at least 60 per cent of ths villages in each State and Union Territory are electrified by 1990. Of (he total number of i,15,165 villages required to be electrified to achieve this target, 40 per cent i.e. about 46,464 addition;.' villages will be electrified during 198085. The States in which more intensive MNP effort is required are Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradssh, Bihar, Orissa, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Sikkim ana North Eastern States. The total cost of this programme during 198085 has been estimated to_ be Rs. 301 croresRs. 160 crores for completing spillover works and Rs. 141 crores for new works. The roraS electrification programme would include provision of streetlights on internal village roads and in Harijan bastis.
Housing for Landless Labour Households
It has been estimated that the number of landless labour households needing
housing assistance would be around 14.5 million by March 1985. So far
7.7 miliicn landless families have been allotted house-sites, It is proposed
to allot house-sites to the remaining 6.8 million families during the
Plan period. Of the 14.5 million families eligible for assistance for
construction of houses/huts, about 0.56 million families have already
been provided with assistance for construction. It is proposed to provide
assistance to about 25 per cent of the eligible households i.e. about
3.6 million families by 1985. An assistance of Rs. 250 per family is envisaged
for provision of developed plots, a masonry well for a cluster of 30-40
families and approach road. Assistance of Rs. 500 per family is visualised
for local building materials for construction of a house. All labour inputs
will be provided by the beneficiaries. Accordingly, an outlay of Rs. 354
crores has been provided for this programmeRs. 170 crores for provision
of house-site? and Rs. 184 crores towards construction.
14.26 A particular area becomes a slum not because of its structure but because of its environment and insanitation. Of the urban population nearly a fi.'h is estimated to constitute slum population. The slum population in 1985 needing attention is estimated to be about 33.1 million. Of this only 6.8 million have been covered by March 1980. It is proposed to cover about 40 per cent of the remaining s'um population i.e. 10 million slum population by 1985. Assuming per capita investment of Rs. 150 the total cost of this programme during the Plan wolild oe Rs. 151 crores. Depending on the strategy to be adopted in the area, facilities to be provided under the programme are water supply, storm water drains, paving of streets, street-lighting and community latrines. Areas inhabited by the scheduled castes are to be given priority.
14.27 The nutrition programme has two components(a) Special Nutrition and (b) Mid-Day Meals.
14.28 The Special Nutrition Programme (SNP) was introduced on the non-Plan side during 1970-71 and subsequently was brought into the Fifth Plan as a part of the Minimum Needs Programme. It provides 300 calories and 8-12 grams of protein for the age group 0-6 for 300 days and 500 calories and 25 grams of protein for the pregnant and nursing mothers for 300 days. The eligible target group for this programme as on 1-4-1980 is 70 million children of 0-6 years and 7 million mothers.
14.29 The programme is jikely to achieve a cumulative coverage oi 8.18 million i.e. .5.73 million outside His P.an and 2.45 million under the Plan by 31-3-1980. The programme would be expanded to cove; the additional 400 integrated Child Development Services (1CDS) Projects. The scheme would tfius cover additional about 5 million children and ;)00,OOU women durin,; the Plan period. The scheme outside the ICDS projects will be restructured by providing healih and other wcMare inputs and also adequate staff for supervision and monitoring. It will be linked to projects of economic activity particularly in areas of women's employment so as to meet the fell needs of the women from poorer sections.
14.30 The Mid-day Meals (MDM) Programme for the age group 6-11 was introduced in 1962-63. It provides lor mid-day meals to these children for 200 days in a year and 300 calories and 8-12 grams of protein per child ner day. It was made a part of the Minimum Needs Programme in the Fifth Plan. It will continue as part of the MNP in the Sixth Plan. About 15.1 million children are being covered outside the Plan and 2.3 million under the P'.an. Recent studies have shown ihnt the scheme has not made much impact in increasing enrolment or in reducing the drop-out ratio. It would, therefore, be necessary to reorganise it and link it with health ssrvices, safe drinking water, environmental and personal hygiene, incentive schemes and kitchen and horticultural gardens in the schools, from where vegetables and fruits would be available for the feeding programmes, before any further expansion is undertaken.
14.31 The total cost of the Nutrition Programme for the Plan 198085 is estimated to be Rs. 219 crores
Needs Programme : Targets and Outlays
Needs Programme1980 85 States and Union Territories
@ Note: In addition Rs. 600 crores are provided for accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme under the Central Sponsored Scheme.
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