6th Five Year Plan
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28 || Appendix

Chapter 14:

The concept of the MNP emerged and crystallised out of the experience of the previous plans that neither growth nor social consumption can be sustained, much less accelerated, without being mutually supportive.

14.2 The programme is essentially an investment in human resource development. The provision of free or subsidised services through public agencies is expected to improve the consumption levels of those living below the poverty line and thereby improve the productive efficiency of both the rural and urban workers. This integration of social consumption programmes with economic development programmes is necessary to accelerate growth and to ensure the achievement of plan objectives.

14.3 In the absence of such a programme, the pressure for investments in the development of infrastructure and production sectors left relatively small allocations for social services. Even such outlays as were available were the first to get reduced in any conflict of priorities created by resource constraint. Further, the benefits of social services cannot reach the poorest without conscious efforts to that end. Disparities in social consumption obtain not only between income groups but also between areas. The level of development of the various social services and infrastructure varies widely from State to State.

14.4 The Minimum Needs Programme lays down the urgency for providing social services according to nationally accented norms within p time bound programme. Its allocations are earmarked and it seeks to ensure the necessary provision of resources.

14.5 The programme introduced in the Fifth Five Year Plan will continue during the Sixth Plan. Its components are as follows:

  1. Elementary Education
  2. Rural Health
  3. Rural Water Supply ;
  4. Rural Roads
  5. Rural Electrification
  6. Housing assistance to rural landless labourers
  7. Environmental improvement of urban slums
  8. Nutrition

14.6 For optimising benefits, these programmes have to be taken as a package and related to specific areas and beneficiary groups. A sectoral approach in which programmes are formulated and implemented depart-mentally will not be adequate either for the overall develoment of the area or for bringing about the desired distribution of benefits. The need for integration is especially greater at the micro-level where the programmes are implemented.


14.7 With the Sixth Five Year Plan 1980—85, this programme would enter the seventh year of its implementation. During the past years States such as Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kamataka have made good progress, while States like Madhya Pradesh, Raiasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal and the North Eastern States have lagged behind.

14.8 The approved outlays and expenditure on the programme from its beginning in the Fifth Plan are as follows:

Table 14.1 Outlay and Expenditure on Minimum Needs Programme 1974—80
(Rs. crores)



Item 1974-75 Outlay 1974-78 Expenditure 1978-79 1979-80
Outlay Expd. Outlay Expd.
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
1 Elementary Education 463 230 139 132 88 61
2 Adult Education 1 7 4 13 7
3 Rural Health 296 74 40 33 39 33
4 Rural Water Supply 563 262 114 133 152 188
5 Rural Roads 502 231 120 152 121 182
6 Rural Electrification 282 103 52 34 53 45
7 House-Sites/Houses for Rural Landless labourers . 109 50 16 22 32 53
8 Environmental Improvement of Slums 105 38 11 10 16 16
9 Nutrition 287 49 26 20 21 22
10 Total 2607 1038 525 540 535 607

14.9 The present data base of physical achievements is weak and some systematic arrangements .are required to be made to build it and maintain it up to date. The position is discussed in detail under each component of the programme.


14.10 The components of the programme would basically be the same as for the Fifth Plan 1974—79. A total provision of Rs. 5807 crores has been made in the Plan as against Rs. 2607 crores for the Fifth Plan. Targets have been fixed after taking into consideration financial and physical constraints so that the programme is a realistic one. The outlays to be provided would continue to be earmarked so that the investment under these programmes is assured. It is expected that this programme coupled wi,th various other programmes of rural development would enhance opportunities for emioyment and improved life of the rural poor. A high level machinery for monitor-iag the implementation of the programme at Central and State level would need to be set up, which would also ensure improvement in data base. The physical constraiants of the programme would be kept under constant review to achieve the stated objectives and effort will be made to overcome them.~The norms, targets and outlays for the different components of the programme are given in the Amiexure 14.1.

Elementary Education

14.11 The objective continues to be the universalisation of elementary education. But taking into consideration the progress made in the various States and Union Territories, it is proposed through the formal system, to achieve this objective in two stages, i.e. 95 per cent of enrolment in the age group 6—11 and 50 per cent in the age group 11—14 by 1985 and universal enrolment in the age group 6—14 by 1990. The availability of funds will not be allowed to stand in the way of more rapid universalisation of primary education wherever it can be achieved. The Planning Commission will keep this matter under review. The formal system would be supplemented by non-formal education. In achieving cent per cent enrolment for the age group 6—11, the constraint is predominantly the socio-economic circumstances of families below the poverty line. This aspect will hence need special attention.

14.12 The position in respect of elementary education varies from State to State and would continue to be so at the end of the Sixth Plan even though steady progress would be maintained in all the educationally backward States. As against 13 States and Union Territories, which are yet to unwersalise primary education for boys in 1979-80, their number would be reduced to just 4 by 1984-85, these being Haryana (93.4 per cent coverage expected), Kama-taka (86.2 per cent), Rajasthan (94.3 per cent) and Uttar Pradesh (97.0 per cent). In the case of girls education, there is a wide variation in coverage from about 30 per cent in Rajasthan to virtually complete coverage in States like Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland. Punjab and Tamil Nadu in 1979-80, The gap would be reduced and the lowest expected coverage is about 43 per cent in Rajasthan in 1984-85. With a view to making up this deficiency the States lagging behind would need to strengthen the non-formal classes for elementary education.

14.13 In regard to enrolment in classes VI—VIII, the target for formal education of 50 per cent in relation to the population of 11—14 would be achieved in 23 States and Union Territories; those lagging behind would be Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, and Arunachal Pradesh. These States have a backlog to be Cleared in respect of primary education tor which concerted efforts would be made during the Sixth Plan. Universalisation of middle school education in these States as also in others would be a major task to be taken up during 1985-90.

14.14 Special efforts will have to be made to reach backward and remote areas and the more socially and economically disadvantaged, specially girls and children belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, who constitute the bulk of non-starters and drop-outs. At present, out of every 100 children that enter Class I, only 36 complete Class V. The proportion of drop-outs has remained almost unchanged since the beginning of the planning in the country. Therefore, efficiency of the system will have to be improved to retain students. Appropriate incentive programmes will be designed to ensure regular presence of the students. On this basis, an outlay of Rs. 905 crores has been provided for this programme in the Plan 1980—85.

14.15 Non-formal education ior adults, particularly in the productive age group 15—35 years would also be part of the elementary education component of the MNP. The target will be 100 per cent coverage of the age group 15—35 years by 1990. As the programme is just developing, it is difficult to lay down the target for 1980-85. An outlay of Rs. 128 crores has been provided for adult education under this component. Thus the total outlay on elementary education in the Plan 1980-85 is Rs. 1033 crores i.e. Rs. 905 crores plus Rs. 128 crores.

Rural Health

14.16 Rural health infrastructure would be further strengthened in order to achieve the objective of Health-for-All by 2000 A.D. The norms envisaged are:

  1. One Community Health Volunteer for every village or a population of 1000 chosen by the community to form the base unit.
  2. One sub-centre for a population of 5000 in plains and 3000 in hilly and tribal areas.
  3. One PHC for 30,000 population in the plains and 20,000 in hilly and tribal areas.
  4. One Community Health Centre (CHC) for population of one lakh or one C.D. Block.

14.17 The Community Health Volunteer scheme and the scheme of training and employment of multipurpose workers will be continued under the MNP. It is proposed to increase the number of Community Health Volunteers from 1.40 lakhs as on April 1, 1980 to 3.60 lakhs by 1985. 40,000 sub-centres will be added to the 50,000' centres existing on 1-4-1980. This would account for about 74 per cent of the total number of 122,000 •sub-centres to be set up on the basis of mid-1984 rural population. Additional 600 Primary Health Centres will be set up during 1980-85 and priority will be given to tribal areas. In addition to the existing 1,000 Subsidiary Health Centres, another 1,000 will be added during 1980-85 by converting the rural dispensaries into Subsidiary Health Centres. All these Subsidiary Health Centres will in subsequent Plans be converted into Primary Health Centres. Thus there will be 6,000 PHCs and 2,000 Subsidiary Health Centres. The Community Health Centre (CHC), a modified form of the upgraded 30 bedded hospital,, would provide for necessary specialities of gynaecology, paediatrics, surgery and medicine along with the provision of beds. In addition to the existing 340 rural hospitals, 174 new rural hospitals (CHC) will be set up in the Plan period.

14.18 The backlog of construction works of sub-centres, PHC buildings and residential accommodation, along with construction works of new units will be taken up and completed to the extent resources are available. A total provision of Rs. 577 crores has been made for Rural Health for 1980-85.

Rural Water Supply

14.19 The total number of problem villages conforming to the following criteria is estimated to be 1.90 lakh as on 1-4-1980:

  1. those which do not have an assured source of drinking water within a reasonable distance, say 1.6 kms;
  2. those where the sources of water supply are endemic to water-borne diseases like cholera, guinea-worms etc.; and
  3. those where the available water suffers from excess of salinity, iron or fluorides or other toxic elements hazardous to health.

14.20 During the Sixth Plan, the effort will be to cover all the problem villages of the three categories mentioned above. With the financial provisions made in the State Plans, it will be possible to achieve this objective except in certain difficult areas in the hill and desert regions where, because of physical constraints, the programme may take a longer time.

14.21 A recent study made by the Programme Evaluation Organisation of the Planning Commission has shown that in the past the scheduled castes and other weaker sections have not gained proportionately from the facilities created for water supply under the Minimum Needs Programme. In this context, during the Sixth Plan period, special attention will need to be paid to the location of safe drinking water points in a manner such that these Communities can benefit fully.

14.22 The average cost per village for providing safe drinking water varies widely according to the type of facility such as hand pumps, wells or piped water supply. In Karnataka for example, it is Rs. 1600, while in Nagaland it is Rs. 2.16 lakhs. In Punjab where only pipe water supply schemes are being implemented it is Rs. 4.26 lakhs. On the basis of average cost per village in each State, the cost of the programme during 1980-85 is estimated to be around Rs. 2007 crores and provision has been made accordingly.

Rural Roads

14.23 Under the Fifth Plan the norm was to link up all villages with a population of 1500 or more with all weather roads. It is proposed to connect with roads all the remaining villages with a population of 1500 and above and 50 per cent of the total number of villages in the population group 1000-1500 by 1990. On 1-4-80, the number of villages remaining to be linked according to the above norms was about 40,000. About 50 per cent of the physical programme, i.e. 20,000 villages would be completed by 1985 for which an outlay of Rs. 1165 crores has been provided in the Plan, though some of the States namely, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa may lag behind in achieving the MNP objective.

Rural Electrification

14.24 In tlie Fifth Plan the target was to cover 40 per cent of the rural population under electrification. It has been decided to shift the criterion of population coverage to village coverage and to ensure that at least 60 per cent of ths villages in each State and Union Territory are electrified by 1990. Of (he total number of i,15,165 villages required to be electrified to achieve this target, 40 per cent i.e. about 46,464 addition;.' villages will be electrified during 1980—85. The States in which more intensive MNP effort is required are Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradssh, Bihar, Orissa, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Sikkim ana North Eastern States. The total cost of this programme during 1980—85 has been estimated to_ be Rs. 301 crores—Rs. 160 crores for completing spillover works and Rs. 141 crores for new works. The roraS electrification programme would include provision of streetlights on internal village roads and in Harijan bastis.

Housing for Landless Labour Households

14.25 It has been estimated that the number of landless labour households needing housing assistance would be around 14.5 million by March 1985. So far 7.7 miliicn landless families have been allotted house-sites, It is proposed to allot house-sites to the remaining 6.8 million families during the Plan period. Of the 14.5 million families eligible for assistance for construction of houses/huts, about 0.56 million families have already been provided with assistance for construction. It is proposed to provide assistance to about 25 per cent of the eligible households i.e. about 3.6 million families by 1985. An assistance of Rs. 250 per family is envisaged for provision of developed plots, a masonry well for a cluster of 30-40 families and approach road. Assistance of Rs. 500 per family is visualised for local building materials for construction of a house. All labour inputs will be provided by the beneficiaries. Accordingly, an outlay of Rs. 354 crores has been provided for this programme—Rs. 170 crores for provision of house-site? and Rs. 184 crores towards construction.

Environmental improvement of Urban Blunts

14.26 A particular area becomes a slum not because of its structure but because of its environment and insanitation. Of the urban population nearly a fi.'h is estimated to constitute slum population. The slum population in 1985 needing attention is estimated to be about 33.1 million. Of this only 6.8 million have been covered by March 1980. It is proposed to cover about 40 per cent of the remaining s'um population i.e. 10 million slum population by 1985. Assuming per capita investment of Rs. 150 the total cost of this programme during the Plan wolild oe Rs. 151 crores. Depending on the strategy to be adopted in the area, facilities to be provided under the programme are water supply, storm water drains, paving of streets, street-lighting and community latrines. Areas inhabited by the scheduled castes are to be given priority.


14.27 The nutrition programme has two components—(a) Special Nutrition and (b) Mid-Day Meals.

14.28 The Special Nutrition Programme (SNP) was introduced on the non-Plan side during 1970-71 and subsequently was brought into the Fifth Plan as a part of the Minimum Needs Programme. It provides 300 calories and 8-12 grams of protein for the age group 0-6 for 300 days and 500 calories and 25 grams of protein for the pregnant and nursing mothers for 300 days. The eligible target group for this programme as on 1-4-1980 is 70 million children of 0-6 years and 7 million mothers.

14.29 The programme is jikely to achieve a cumulative coverage oi 8.18 million i.e. .5.73 million outside His P.an and 2.45 million under the Plan by 31-3-1980. The programme would be expanded to cove; the additional 400 integrated Child Development Services (1CDS) Projects. The scheme would tfius cover additional about 5 million children and ;)00,OOU women durin,; the Plan period. The scheme outside the ICDS projects will be restructured by providing healih and other wcMare inputs and also adequate staff for supervision and monitoring. It will be linked to projects of economic activity particularly in areas of women's employment so as to meet the fell needs of the women from poorer sections.

14.30 The Mid-day Meals (MDM) Programme for the age group 6-11 was introduced in 1962-63. It provides lor mid-day meals to these children for 200 days in a year and 300 calories and 8-12 grams of protein per child ner day. It was made a part of the Minimum Needs Programme in the Fifth Plan. It will continue as part of the MNP in the Sixth Plan. About 15.1 million children are being covered outside the Plan and 2.3 million under the P'.an. Recent studies have shown ihnt the scheme has not made much impact in increasing enrolment or in reducing the drop-out ratio. It would, therefore, be necessary to reorganise it and link it with health ssrvices, safe drinking water, environmental and personal hygiene, incentive schemes and kitchen and horticultural gardens in the schools, from where vegetables and fruits would be available for the feeding programmes, before any further expansion is undertaken.

14.31 The total cost of the Nutrition Programme for the Plan 1980—85 is estimated to be Rs. 219 crores

Annexure 14-1 Minimum Needs Programme : Targets and Outlays
(Rs. crores)

Head Objective Target by 1985 Outlay
States/UTs Plan Central Plan
Elementary Education 100% enrolment in the age group 6—14 by 1990. It would be supplemented with non-formal education. 95 % enrolment in the age group 6—11 and 50 % in the age group 11—14. It would be supplemented with non-formal education. 851 54

100 % coverage of adults in the age group 15—35 by 1990 through non-formal education. Target not fixed. 68 60
Rural Health . 1. One Community Health Volunteer for a population of 1000 or a village by 1990. To increase the number of ") Community Health Volunteers from 1.4 Lakh as on 1st April, 1980 to 3.60 Lakhs.

2, Establishment of one sub-centre for a population of 5000 in plains and 3000 in tribal and hilly areas by 2000 A.D. To increase the number of sub-centres from 50,000 to 90,000 or 75 % achievement of the objective.

3. One PHC for 30,000 population in plains and 20,000 in tribal and hilly areas by 2000 A.D. To establish 600 additional PHCs and 1000 SHCs over and above ' 5400 PHCs and 1000 SHCs existing now for achieving about 45 % of the number required. 408 169

4. Establishment of one Community Health Centre for a population of one lakh or one C.D. Block by 2000 A.D. To establish 174 Community Health Centres, in addition to converting existing 340 upgraded PHCs into Community Health Centres. J

Rural Water Supply .

Coverage of all the remaining problem villages by 1985 excepting in some difficult areas like hilly and desert regions. 1407 600
Rural Roads Linking up of all remaining villages with a population of 1500 and above and 50% of the total number of villages with population of 1000—1500 by 1990. To cover about 50% of the tota' number of villages required to be covered to achieve the objective i.e., additional about 20,000 villages. 1165

Rural Electrification . At least 60% of the villages, in each State and Union Territory to be electrified by 1990. 40% of the villages required to be covered to achieve the objective i.e., additional 46,464 to be electrified. 301

Housing assistance to rural landless labourers. Provision of housing assistance to all landless labour householda by 1990. Assistance to include house-site construction materials, drinking water well for a cluster of houses and approach road. To cover all the remaining households for allotment of house-sites and 25% of the eligible households i.e. about 3.6 million for provision of assistance for construction of houses. 354

Environmental Improvement of urban slums. 100% coverage of the urban slum population by 1990. Facilities to include water supply, sewerage, paving of streets, storm water drains, community latrines. Areas inhabited by scheduled castes particularly scavengers would be given priority. 40% of the remaining slum population i.e. additional 10 million slum population to be covered. 151

Nutrition ....

SNP: 5 million children in 600 • ICDS blocks and 5 lakh women to be covered by providing integrated services of feeding, health, welfare, etc. MDM: The existing level of beneficiaries i.e. about 17-4 million children to be continued and the programme to be integrated with oilier essential ^ services. 219

4924 883

Annexure 14-2Minimum Needs Programme—1980 85 States and Union Territories
(Rs. lakhs)

States/UTs. Rural Electrification Rural Roads Elementary Education Rural Health Rural

Water supply

Rural Housing Environmental Improvement of Slums Nutrition Total
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) tl0)
1 Andhra Pradesh 420 1500 3850 2439 9500 7675 800 1100 27284
2 Assam 3500 3600 5250 1200 3000 1000 75 270 17895
3 Bihar \304 14000 11000 3627 7500 1100 410 1000 41941
4 Gujarat 364 13500 3500 2039 6500 3085 500 1650 31108
5 Haryana   350 2100 853 8000 990 380 400 13073
6 Himachal Pradesh 240 3500 822 500 3500 25 40 117 8744
7 Janunu and Kashmir 250 1600 1950 903 4500 100 440 120 9363
8 Karnataka 140 4500 .WOO 20:)3 1900 550') 1500 243 20786
9 Kerala 1300 !650 954 4500 1200 600 1400 11604
10 Madhya Pradesh 4855 4000 6460 3607 6000 2900 800 2)00 30622
11 Maharashtra 9400 3300 3000 23000 3500 1400 2600 46209
12 Manipur 376 1000 600 527 1750 25 110 4388
13 Meghalaya 318 520 520 443 1950 30 125 3906
14 Nagaland 126 325 480 297 1175 130 2533
15 Orissa 2034 3000 2800 1600 3400 800 100 650 14384
16 Punjab 2000 2200 1377 6800 1200 500 80 14157
17 Rajasthan 2810 6500 6900 1743 10629 475 250 327 29634
18 Sikkim; 60 900 390 139 600 15 125 2229
19 Tamil Nadu .. 7000 2400 2182 5000 2500 2500 2600 24182
20 Tripura 229 1100 940 336 1200 100 50 580 4535
21 Uttar Pradesh . 8879 31500 11300 7489 22000 1800 1000 883 84851
22 West Bengal 1388 3750 12750 2588 4800 1200 2700 2500 31676
Total— States : . 29293 114845 84162 39816 137204 35150 14115 21010 t75595
1 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 90 450 434 44 405 5

15 1443
2 Arunachal Pradesh 568 300 2720 400 1277 50 5315
3 Chandigarh ... — 10 418 85 125 638
4 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 40 70 37 60 10 20 237
5 Delhi .... 30 2950 12 700 45 920 450 5107
6 Goa, Daman and Din 25 380 55 170 50 75 40 795
7 Lakshadweep 10 . 58 22 13 5 108
8 Mizoram 154 720 520 326 800 50 2570
9 Pondicherry 60 195 49 82 90 35 109 62>)
Total— UTs 812 1645 7745 1030 3507 200 1030 864 16S. t
Grand Total 30105 116490 91907 40846 14071I@ 1 35350 15145 21874 492428..

@ Note: In addition Rs. 600 crores are provided for accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme under the Central Sponsored Scheme.

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