8th Five Year Plan (Vol-2)
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Agricultural and Allied Activities || Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation || Irrigation, Command Area Development and Flood Control || Environment and Forests || Industry and Minerals || Village and Small Industries and Food Processing Industries || Labour and Labour Welfare || Energy || Transport || Communication, Information and Broadcasting || Education, Culture and Sports || Health and Family Welfare || Urban Development || Housing, Water Supply and Sanitation || Social Welfare || Welfare and Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes || Special Area Development Programmes || Science and Technology || Plan Implementation and Evaluation


Building Centres

14.7.16 The question of S and T activities in the housing sector has assumed crucial importance in view of scarcity of building materials, high energy intensity of construction activity and rising cost of development of land. While research endeavour in previous plans has helped in the evolution of appropriate design and development of innovative building materials, the technology has not been accepted due to lack of interface between users and innovators and an incentive mechanism. To foster the technology transfer to the grass root level, a centrally sponsored scheme for establishment of Building Centres was initiated in 1988. The Building Centres are intended to promote the use of new alternate materials and construction techniques through demonstration, production and training in different rural/urban regions. About 213 Building Centres have been established so tar out of which 77 are fully operational. An outlay ofRs. 1 crore each during 1990-91 and 1991-92 was provided for the scheme. The Ministry of Urban Development has constituted an Expert Committee to review this scheme.

Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council

14.7.17 To bridge the gap between laboratory development and large scale field application of innovative materials and technologies, facilitate mass production on commercial scale and develop an integrated system for technology transfer and delivery, the Government of India set up in 1990 the Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC). This Council is an inter-ministerial and apex institution. The Council is coordinating with Central and State agencies to evaluate, validate and adopt new technologies to scale up proven ones and to facilitate the setting up of production units. During the Eighth Plan, the Council will focus on technology transfer and promotion of building materials, venture capital and other support to entrepreneurs in innovative materials, sponsoring of R and D studies, taking up prefabrica-tion technology and dissemination of technology.

Eighth Plan Thrust Areas

14.7.18 The following are major thrust areas during the Eighth Plan:

  1. Strengthening of Building Centres to provide effective means of prorogating low cost building materials and construction technologies at grass root level with at least one building centre in each district and in addition there could be specialised rural/regional building centres;
  2. Promotion of large scale production of building materials based on industrial and agricultural wastes through an appropriate incentive structure and by achieving target utilisation of wastes like flyash, phopsho-gypsum, agricultural residues and natural fibres;
  3. Increasing use of locally available building materials in rural housing programmes;
  4. Development of planning and design norms and codes of practices to promote low-cost energy-efficient technologies and to reduce the cost of housing; and
  5. Promotion of cost-effective industrialised construction systems to the extent of 10 to 15 per cent dwellings to be set up by public housing agencies.

Strengthening Management Information System

14.7.19 The Draft National Housing Policy has stressed the need for the setting up of an appropriate management information system at various levels for housing and urban services in order to support policy formulation, monitor implementation of various schemes and periodically evaluate their impact. A Sub-Group on Housing Statistics set up by the Planning Commission had identified various gaps in the data collected at present and had suggested strengthening of the present system of data collection. The Sub-group proposed a Housing Census by the Registrar General of India (RGI) and periodic surveys on important indicators of housing conditions, access to service, expenditure and savings pattern and residential pattern and land prices etc. It is proposed that the RGI will take up the census in 1995 in urban areas.

14.7.20 For effective flow of data from all the areas in a State, it has been proposed to strengthen the present three tier system operated by NBO starting at city level which involves additional technical support at central and state level, data processing facilities and incentives at local levels for data reporting. It is proposed to identify the responsibilities of different data collecting agencies in the sector in the Central Government, Reserve Bank etc. and coordinate their efforts through the strengthened set-up for MIS in the Ministry.

Eighth Plan Outlay And Physical Target

14.8.1 Key physical targets during Eighth Five Year Plan are given in Table-8. An attempt has been made to indicate the contribution of formal sector as defined in an earlier para. The contribution of formal sector is estimated to be about 10 lakhs new units annually during the Seventh

Table-8 Key Physical Targets during the Eighth Plan

Item Unit Cumulative Target (1992-97)
l.New Housing Stock (All sectors)
i)Rura) Lakh 81.5
ii)Urban Lakh 78.0
2. Shelter Upgradation    
i)Rural Lakh 40.7
ii)Urban Lakh 17.5
3.Allotment of Village House Sites (MNP) Lakh 40.0
4. Formal Sector Contribution in part or full to new Housing Stock
i)Rural Lakh 35.0
ii)Urban Lakh i 30.0
5.EWS New Housing (All sectors)
i)Rural Lakh 68.0
ii)Urban Lakh i 30.0
6.Building Centre (District Level) No. 250

Plan. This is expected to increase to 13 lakhs annually during Eighth Plan. This includes loan assistance through State and Central Plan, HUDCO and other HFIs (Public Sector) as well as fully subsidised Indira Awas Yojana (IAY). Share of the rural sector in terms of units, mostly contributed through state sector programme, is estimated at 51 per cent which is higher than that of the Seventh Five Year Plan. The proportion of EWS Housing is derived from the existing norms of HUDCO. In case of Upgradation, the projected units include kucha and semi-structures only with rural sector receiving greater thrust during Eighth Plan. The projected number of building centres implies that there will be at least one centre in each district.

14.8.2 The Plan outlay is estimated at Rs 6377.02 crores of which as much as Rs 3581.67 crores will be in State Sectors. Emphasis during the Eighth Plan will be to promote and provide housing through institutional finance and other instruments. Accordingly, in the central sector, equity support to HUDCO will be about Rs 155 crores and Internal Extra Budgetary Resources (IEBR) will be around Rs 860 crores. A new scheme of Rural Housing aimed at supplementing the efforts of State Governments in provision/upgradation of housing units, has been proposed by the Ministry of Rural Development for implementation during Eight Plan. The support provided will be in the nature of equity/financial assistance to HUDCO as also State organisations and for improvement of supply of dilivery system. A provision of Rs. 350.00 crores has been made during 1992-97. A summary of Plan Outlay on housing in States and Central sector during Eighth Plan is given in Table-9.

Table - 9 Plan outlay on Housing in States and Central Sector (1992-97)
(Rs.in crores)

1. States Sector -Total 3581.67
2. Central Sector  
2.1 Ministry of Rural Development 1454.00
2.1. linclira Awas Yojana 1104.00*
2.1.2Centrally Sponsered Scheme of Rural Housing 350.00
2.2.Ministry of Urban Development 1341.35
2.2.1ofwhichIEBR 860.00 +
2.2.2Budgetary Support 481.35
(i)General Pool Accomodation 140.00
(ii)HUDCO(Equity Support) 155.00^
(iii)Housing Census, Periodic Survey 13.00
(iv)Science and Technology and Grants to
( Institute and other programme including Building Centres
3 5.00
(v)Night Shelter Scheme 6.50
(vi)Contribution to Central Govt Employees Housing Welfari Organisation 10.00
(vii)Building Material and Technology Promotion Councily 12.50
(viii)Counterpart Fund for External Aii to HUDCO from KFWJ 138.00 ]
(ix)Counterpart Fund for Externa Assistance to HDFC(Loan from KFW)  
(x)IYSH Activities/Conferences 0.50
(xi)Grants in Aid to NCHF 0.75
(xii)Hindusthan Pre -Fab Ltd. (Equity and loan) 0.10

+ Notional Allocation.
* Included under the Rural Development Programme of JRY
# Including Urban Development



14.9.1 Safe drinking water supply and basic sanitation are vital human needs for health and efficiency. Disease and death, particularly of children, every year and drudgery of women are directly attributable to lack of these essentials.

14.9.2 The requirement of drinking water is at present only 7 to 10 per cent of water available on the surface and 4 to 5 per cent of the ground water potential. The National Water Policy announced in 1987 gives the highest priority to drinking water supply. Since substantial quantities of water are consumed by several other users, it is necessary that the competing demands for water such as for irrigation, industry and domestic use etc. are balanced and fully taken into account while drawing up a comprehensive plan for water management.

14.9.3 Sanitation, both in urban and rural areas, continues to remain neglected. Funds availability has been a constraint in the urban areas, while schemes for rural sanitation were not able to evoke response. These, therefore, require restructuring based on the lessons learnt from the good work done in certain places in Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Review of Performance

14.10.1 Drinking water supply and sanitation are State subjects. The Ministry of Urban Development (MUD) was the nodal agency for this sector at the beginning of the Seventh Plan. Subsequently, rural water supply and sanitation have been transferred to the Department of Rural Development (DRD), while the administration of urban water supply and sanitation has been retained with the MUD. Rural water supply was an important constituent of the State sector MNP during the Seventh Plan. In 1986, the National Drinking Water Mission (NDWM), popularly known as the "Technology Mission" was launched in order to provide scientific and cost-effective content to the Centrally Sponsored Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP). In 1986, it was decided that a portion of the funds, made available under the rural . employment programme and the Indira Awas Yojana, should also be utilised for rural sanitation. Rural sanitation programme was also added to the State sector MNP from 1987-88. In November 1986, a new Centrally Sponsored Rural Sanitation Programme(CRSP) was launched. In the later half of the Seventh Plan, the UNICEF also came forward to support Government efforts for provision of rural sanitation in Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan,West Bengal, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.

14.10.2 The pattern of Plan outlay and expenditure on the Water Supply and Sanitation sector in the aggregate (States/UTs and Centre) during the Seventh Plan, which formed practically half of the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-91), was as follows:

Table-10 Seventh Plan (1985-90)-OutIay/Expenditure-Water Supply and Sanitation Sector
(Rs.in crores)

Sl. No. Plan

Total ip Public Sector

Water Supply and Sanitation Sector
Rural Urban Total
    Amount %+ Amount %+ Amount %+
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 State/UT Plans Outlay 84466.00* 2350.00 2.78 2935.64 3.47 5285.64 6.25
        (3008.17)$ (3.56) (5358.17)$ (6.34)
Expdr. 91509.66* 2620.76 2.86 2551.04 2.79 5171.80 5.65
2 Central Plan  
Outlay 95534.00 1206.72 1.26 30.11 0.03 1236.83 1.29
Expdr. 127519.57 1914.56 1.50 6.77 0.0053 1921.33 1.51
Grand Total    
Outlay 180000.00 3556.72 1.97 2965.75 1.65 6522.47 3.62
        (3038,29)$ (1.69) (6595.00)$ (3.66)
Expdr. 219029.23 4535.32 2.07 257.81 1.17 7093.13 3.24

$As revised subsequently including special Area Programme like HADP/TSP/NEC/BADP; +With respect to Column 3.

14-10.3 The pattern of plan outlay and anticipated expenditure on Water Supply and Sanitation Sector during two annual plans (1990-92) was as indicated in Table 11.

14.10.4 The physical achievements upto the Seventh Plan and two annual plans (1990-92) vis-a-vis the position at the end of the Sixth Plan, based on the information made available by the State/UT Governments to the nodal Ministries, are given in Table 12.

14.10.5 An analysis of the performance revealed that:

  1. Based on the available indicators, performance of the Centrally Sponsored Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme and National Drinking Water Mission appears to be satisfactory;
  2. Concept of "total environmental sanitation" was absent. Linkage of rural sanitation programme with primary health care, water availability, removal of illiteracy and women welfare needed attention. Sanitation Programme should have been taken as a package of service rather than mere construction of latrines;
  3. In actual implementation of water supply schemes, the needs of backward and poorer classes of population were often neglected;
  4. There was a wide gap between provision for safe disposal of waste water and drinking water supply in urban areas;
  5. Pricing of water, implementation of billing and collection mechanism for water tariff, etc. needed considerable improvement;
  6. Wastage and leakage ofwater was substantial and needed corrective action;
  7. There was need for greater cost-effectiveness in the existing programmes and its possible integration with similar programmes.

14.10.6 Arising from the analysis, the following issues emerge as areas of concern:

a) Operations and maintenance of water supply and sanitation installations in the country is badly neglected. A huge backlog of maintenance is building up at a time when resources are scarce;

b) Due to inadequate sewerage and lack of waste treatment facilities, pollutants which enter ground water, rivers and other water sources contribute to increased incidence of water-borne diseases. It is necessary to take timely steps to prevent further pollution and at the same time provide for progressively cleaning of existing rivers and water resources;

c) Water supply and sanitation needs of small towns, particularly in the range of population upto 20,000, received inadequate attention. These towns have a poor financial base and can, therefore, not execute and maintain appropriate water supply and sanitation schemes. The endeavour would, therefore, be to ensure that water supply is provided in all towns, including small towns which are essentially over- grown villages and potential urban nodal centres for the rural hinterland surrounding them;

d) It has been recognised that the earlier efforts to discourage manual scavenging and liberate families engaged in this inhuman task have not borne satisfactory results. Therefore, it is suggested that ongoing programme for liberation/rehabilitation of scavengers should be streamlined to cover legislation, involvement of'NGOs and adequate funding;

e) There are a number of externally aided projects, mainly based on IDA credit and bilateral assistance for undertaking water supply and sanitation projects. Very often the projects are delayed due to inadequacy of counterpart rupee funding and also due to the projects being poorly implemented. It would, therefore, be quite desirable, that before any such new project 1s' taken up , its funding requirement vis-a-* vis resources position and committed liabilities of the State Government and local bodies are examined in depth.

Table - 11 Two Annual Plans (1990-92)-0utlay /Expenditure Water Supply and Sanitation Sector
(Rs in crores)

Sl .No. Plan Outlay/ Expenditure Total Public Sector Water Supply and Sanitation Sector
Rural Urban   Total
Amount % * Amount % * Amount % *
1       2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 State/U.T. Plans Outlay 54,735.54 1,467.33 2.68 1,651.89 3.02 3,119.22 5.70
Expdr. 52813.77 1481.47$ 2.81 1623.71$ 3.07 3105.18$ 5.88
2 Central Plan              
Outlay 82,298.01 1,238.59 1.51 69.48 0.08 1,308.07 1.59
Expdr. 81021.08 1216.82 1.50 69.48 0.09 1286.30 1.58
Grand Total  
Outlay 137,033.55 2,705.92 1.97 1,721.37 1.26 4,427.29 3.23
Expdr. 133834.85 2698.29 2.02 1693.19 1.27 4391.48 3.28

* with respect to col. 3.
$ Including revised outlay for Punjab for 1990-91 reflected under head , 'General Economic Services' against District Sector Schemes.

Table - 12 Physical Achievement at the End of the Seventh Plan (1985-90) and Two Annual Plans (1990-92)
(Population in Million)

Sl. Sub-Sector No. Population covered as on 31.3.1985 Population covered as on 31.3.1990 Anticipated population coverage as on 31.3.92
Population % $ Population % $ Population % $
1             2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 Rural Water Supply 313.86 56.26 444.65 73.87 486.11 78.40
2Rural Sanitation 4.03 0.72 14.79 2.45 16.96 2.73
3 Urban Water Supply 127.20 72.90 182.00 83.80 185.67 84.90
4Urban Sani-    49.60     28.40    99.70
45.93 104.76 47.90

$ Percentage is with respect to total Rural/Urban population on the date.

Eighth Plan Approach

14.11.1 The approach to the Water Supply and Sanitation Sector will take into account the following guidelines given in the New Delhi Declaration, which was adopted by the U.N. General Assembly in December 1990:

  1. Protection of the environment and safeguarding of health through the integrated management of water resources and liquid and solid wastes;
  2. Organisational reforms, promoting an integrated approach and including changes in procedures, attitudes and behaviour and the full participation of women at all levels;
  3. comrnuniiy management of services, backed by measures to strengthen local institutions in implementing and sustaining water and sanitation programmes;
  4. Sound financial practices, achieved through better management of existing assets and extensive use of appropriate technologies.


14.11.2 Based on the perceptions gained from an analysis of the performance of the water supply and sanitation sector in the past and the overall approach and strategies adopted in New-Delhi Declaration, the following objectives have been visualised for the next five years:


  1. Highest priority to be given to ensure that the remaining about 3000 'No-Source' hard-core problem villages in some states are provided with sustainable and stipulated supply of drinking water by March 1993;
  2. Equally important would be to ensure that all the partially covered villages having a supply level of less than 40 liters per capita per
    day (Ipcd) numbring about 1.5 lakh including hamlets, are fully covered with safe drinking water facilities by the end of the , Eighth Plan on sustainahle basis;
  3. Ensure that SC/ST population and other poor/weaker sections are covered fully on a priority basis;
  4. The stipulated norms of supply would be 40 Ipcd of safe drinking water within a walking distance of 1.6 kms or elevation difference of 100 metres in hilly areas, to be relaxed as per field conditions applicable to arid, semi-arid and hilly areas. At least one hand-pump/spot-source for every 250 persons to be provided. Additional 30 Ipcd in DDP/DPAP areas, for cattle to he provided;
  5. Achieve zero incidence of Guineaworm disease by 1993 and total eradication by 1995, besides progressively finding solutions for other bacteriological and chemical problems like excess fluorides, salinity and iron in water sources;
  6. Achieve coverage of about 5 per cent of rural population (cumulative) with their full involvement with sanitation facilities by the end of Eighth Plan. Information, Education and Communication(IEC)should be an integral part of rural sanitation programme. In this context, it is desirable to adopt a concept of 'total environmental sanitation' and provide guidelines to the rural population in regard to proper environmental sanitation practices, including disposal of refuse, garbage and waste-water through the mechanism of local village leaders and community organisations and construct bio-gas plants adjacent to the sanitary complexes.
  7. Convert all existing dry latrines into low-cost sanitary latrines.


i) Extend safe drinking water facilities to the remaining urban population, so as to achieve the goal of 100% coverage of population by turn of the Century with the following norms and standards:

  • 125 Ipcd for urban areas where piped water supply and underground sewerage system are available.
  • 70 Ipcd for urban areas provided with piped water supply but without underground sewerage system.
  • 40 Ipcd for towns with spot-sources/standposts. One source for 20 families within a maximum walking distance of 100 metres.

ii) Provide a special thrust to drinking water supply in small towns with population upto 20,000 and evolve scheme with appropriate financial support to initiate efforts towards the goal of 100% coverage of population by turn of the century.

iii) (a) Convert all dry latrines into low-cost sanitary latrines, so that the present scavenging system is completely eliminated in urban areas.

(b) Cover the outskirts and fringe areas of big cities with low-cost sanitation facilities either on individual household basis or community basis with "pay and use" system, as appropriate.

iv) Evolve and execute financially viable sewerage schemes in big cities, State capitals, important pilgrim/ tourist centres with cost-recovery from beneficiaries to create waste treatment facilities, with adequate thrust on recycling of treated effluents for horticulture, irrigation and other non-domestic purposes.

v) In major metropolitan cities, take steps to evolve and create a scientific and effective mechanism for the collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste and in the process, convert as much of the hio-de-gradable material as possible into organic manure. During the Eighth Plan, a few cities having population more than 5 lakh each (as per 1991 census) would be covered with the restructured schemes.

Thrust And Strategies

14.12.1 Based on the experience gained in the recent years and taking note of the issues which have emerged, strategies and Plan thrusts have been evolved to cope with the challenges.

14.12.2 With regard-to operation and maintenance, the following aspects need to be emphasised:

  1. Water has to be managed as a commodity in exactly the same way as any other resource;
  2. Supply of water to consumers should normally be based on the principle of effective demand which should broadly correspond to the standard of service, that the users are willing to maintain, operate and finance;
  3. To ensure that in urban areas, Municipalities/local bodies are free to levy and raise appropriate user- charges for drinking water and sanitation facilities in order to strengthen the financial position of the urban local bodies/Municipalities whreby at least the operation and maintenance costs, if not further development, become self-sustaining;
  4. In rural areas, water-tariff may not be feasible in all places. However, wherever house- service connections are given, it is suggested that appropriate water-tariff is levied and realised whereby operation and maintenance becomes self-sustaining to the extent possible;
  5. Private Sector efforts for construction and maintenance of drinking water projects should be encouraged and mobilised to the maximum extent feasible;
  6. Local bodies, whether in rural or urban areas, should be made responsible for the operation and maintenance of the system installed, with technical guidance from government agencies;
  7. Appropriate links should be forged between water supply and environmental sanitation (solid and liquid waste management) in the planning of new programmes.

14.12.3 Development has, in its wake, led to increasing pollution of water resources. ,It is, therefore, suggested that in the Eighth Plan, it should he ensured that the pollution, whidi is presently taking place, is progressively eliminated through provision of industrial waste and sewage treatment facilities. At the same time, preventive measures will have to be taken to see that new physical assets created as a part of the planning process or otherwise do not add to the problem of water pollution.

14.12.4 The concept of "total sanitation" - covering primary health care, water availability, women's welfare, immunization and provision of sanitation facilities, all linked to cleanliness as a basic human need - will be emphasised. Every effort will be made to adopt a low-cost approach, employing technical and scientific knowhow and the experience already gained by several non-Governmental organisations in this regard.

14.12.5 In order to reduce costs, it is desirable that the programmes of drinking water supply and sanitation, both in rural and urban areas, are implemented in a more decentralised manner with the involvement of the people and local institutions at all stages — planning, project formulation, execution, operation and maintenance and monitoring and evaluation. It is also desirable that the district planning machinery is used to provide the necessary technical support to the local bodies for creation and maintenance of installations. While emphasising on efficient exploitation of available water for various uses, it is necessary to take timely steps to see that the sources are recharged and rejuvenated. It will, at the same time, be necessary to ensure appropriate linkage between soil-conservation and land/water management and drinking water supply schemes in order to provide for sustained supply.

14.12.6 While the ARWSP has been operative for almost 15 years now, no detailed evaluation of the programme has yet been carried out. It is desirable that the Programme Evaluation Organisation or some similar body undertakes an evaluation in order to identify changes, if any, required in the concept, the content or the manner of implementation of the programme in-cluding the schemes undertaken under Mini-Mission and Sub-Mission Projects of National Drinking Water Mission.

14.12.7 In order to ensure effective operation and maintenance of assets created as in the Seventh Plan, a maximum of 10% of funds underMNP and ARWSP each could be utilised for operation and maintenance. Most States face re-source problems and, therefore, tend to ne-g'c"* maintenance. It is necessary to evolve an e^fctive mechanism for ensuring proper operation aii-i ir'aintenance of existing assets. "Vil-lage-water-comm;ttees" should be actively involved in the maintenance of drinking water supply schemes and a system of beneficiary participation introduced. Participation of village women and NGOs/voluntary organisations should also be encouraged. The mechanism and the funds available under TRYSEM should be used to impart training, so that trained manpower can be locally mobilised for the maintenance of the assets.

14.12.8 After a careful consideration of the situation as regards rural sanitation, it is suggested that the Rural Sanitation Programme be restructured providing for the following elements:

  1. all activities under this programme will be undertaken through local body/ village panchayat and with beneficiary participation.
  2. wherever feasible, NGOs will be involved in the implementation of the programme.
  3. women will he actively associated with the implementation of the programme.
  4. some contribution should be solicited from the beneficiaries, at least in the form of physical labour, in order to engender among them the realisation that the assets created belong to the local community.

14.12.9 Rural water supply and rural sanitation facilities are essential ingredients in the total programme for rural development. There are many other allied elements which go into the total process of rural development. These include infrastructural aspects like land management, soil conservation, afforestation etc. and social aspects like primary health care, removal of illiteracy, women's welfare, child nutrition, immunisation etc. It is desirable that the thrust and implementation of as many of these pro-"-grammes as possible get converged, in order to* provide for integrated rural development with 'village' as one unit on the one hand, and ' area' comprising of several adjacent villages together, on the other.

14.12.10 Urban water supply and sanitation schemes form part of the State Sector Plan. There has been no direct Central funding during the Seventh Plan. The MUD started dealing with installation of low-cost sanitary latrine and conversion of dry latrines into sanitary latrines under a Centrally sponsored scheme since 1990-91. This programme will be a major thrust in the Eighth Plan. The strategy to be adopted will include:-

  1. change in the municipal bye-laws, wherever necessary, to prevent construction of dry latrines in future.
  2. conversion of all existing dry latrines into low- cost sanitary latrines by the end of the Eighth Plan.
  3. introduction of legislative measures, whereby employment of manual scavengers becomes an offence beyond a specified date, well before the end of the Eighth Plan.
  4. A suitable coordination mechanism will be evolved to ensure that the programme is executed in an integrated and effective manner. The Ministry of Urban Development would involve financial institutions like the HUDCO and would be responsible in overseeing all aspects of implementation of the programme of replacement of dry latrines and construction of new sanitary latrines, where they do not exist. The Ministry of Welfare would oversee the programme of liberation/rehabilitation of scavengers and their families.

14.12.11 Provision of drinking water and sanitation including solid and liquid waste management facilities in urban areas has been inadequate. A major problem in this regard is the lack of resources with urban local bodies, not only to finance creation of the facilities, but also to operate and maintain them. Almost all urban areas continue to enjoy highly subsidised water, whether it is for domestic use, commercial use or industrial use. The billing and collection mechanism is also weak and faulty and needs considerable improvement. It is necessary to adopt appropriate tariff- structures, as applicable to different strata of population. Cost-recovery should be built in the municipal financial structures and subsidies, where inevitable, kept explicit. Operation and maintenance costs should be fully recovered through adoption of cross-subsidy measures, so that smaller local bodies become self-sustaining, while metropolitan and other big cities are able to meet, in addition, the costs of further developments.

14.12.12 In order to improve efficiency, accountability and public awareness in the management of urban water supply and sanitation, it is desirable to separate the budget for water supply and sanitation from the general municipal budget. The future projects on urban water supply and sanitation should increasingly rely on institutional finance. Cost-recovery through appropriate user-charges under separate budget head, as already tried out in certain municipalities, and strict adherence to time and cost sched-ule are preconditions for successful implementation of the programme.

14.12.13 In urban areas, apart from strengthening the enforcement machinery to stop theft and pilferage, it is very important to take preventive maintenance measures and ensure that transmission and distribution losses through leakage, are avoided.

14.12.14 It has been felt necessary to evolve and implement a cost-effective special scheme of drinking water supply to small towns with a population upto 20,000 persons with some financial support from Centre on a matching basis under a Centrally sponsored scheme. The details of the scheme and the financing pattern will be worked out by the Ministry of Urban Development in consultation with the Planning Commission, Ministry of Finance and State Govts./U.T.Admns. The MUD will also oversee the management of the scheme.

14.12.15 The Central Plan support to supplement the State efforts in the field of training, research and technology development, management information system, computerised'monitoring of rigs as appropriate in rural and* urban sub- sectors will need to be continued. Programmes aimed at upgrading the skills of personnel dealing with public health/environmentai health engineering activities, transfer of technology from the laboratory to the field, both in regard to material and equipment as well as preventive health, water quality monitoring and surveillance etc., will need to be encouraged. In addition, it will be necessary, particularly in the context of the envisaged large-scale low-cost sanitation programme for elimination of scavenging, to integrate such training with Information, Education and Communication (IEC) support.

14.12.16 Some of the important topics, proposed under the water supply, relate to: community participation, behavioural pattern and technology transfer aspects of water supply;evaluation and assessment of the rural water supply system etc. Studies would be undertaken on the preventive maintenance of water distribution system with reference to leakages and carrying capacities of the mains; leak detection measures; hydraulic analysis and optimum design of the water distribution systems; extension of rapid bacteriological techniques; development of springs for water supplies; development of natural and inorganic coagulants etc. Use of solar energy in the rural water supply; hydraulic rams for the rural water supply in hilly areas;development of package water treatment plants etc. would be given a major thrust. Focus would also be given to R and D on the conversion of brackish water and sea water to drinking water.

In sanitation, the areas Tor research and development relate tor sanitary latrines; integrated bio- gas system for the treatment ofexcreata and animal wastes and the utilisation of gas; low-cost waste water collection, treatment and recycling for non domestic uses or safe disposal system etc.

Envisaged Physical Achievements

14.12.17 Physical coverage expected to be achieved by the end of the Eighth Plan is shown in the table 13.


14.13.1 Keeping in view the constraint of resources and other competing demands, the Eighth Plan provides an outlay ofRs. 16711.03 crores, of which Rs. 10743.03 crores will be under State/UT Plans and Rs. 5968.00 crores under Central Plan for Water Supply and Sanitation Programme. This works out to 3.85% of the total public sector outlays. This includes loan assistance from LIC as well as external assistance from World Bank and bilateral agencies. It is envisaged that sizeable amount of funds will be mobilised outside Plan from the local bodies, the beneficiaries, NGOs, financing institutions like HUDCO etc., particularly for urban sub-sector, in order to achieve the Eighth Plan target. Scheme-wise outlays are indicated in statement - 14.1.

Table -13 Physical achievement envisaged at the end of the Eighth Plan.

                                                                                      (Population In Million)

S. Sub-Sector No. Envisaged Coverage as on 31.3.92 Expected Coverage during 8th Plan Expected cumulative coverage at the end of Eighth Plan
  Population % $ Population + Population % $
1                2 3 4 5 6 7
l.RuralWater Supply 486.11 78.40 188.69 674.80 100.00
2. Rural Sanitation 16.96 2.73 16.80 33.76 5.00
3. Urban Water Supply 185.67 84.90 65.00 250.67 94.03
4. Urban Sanitation 104.76 47.90 80.00 184.76 69.31

($) Percentage is with respect to total projected rural/urban population on the date.
(+) Including augmentation/improvement of services, as appropriate.

N.B. : As the norms of water supply in urban and rural areas are different, the percentage achievement is not exactly comparable.

Statement - 14.1

Schemewise Outlay/anticipated Expenditure During Seventh Plan (1985-90)
And Two Annual Plans (1990-92) And Outlay For Eighth Plan (1992-97) - Water Supply And Sanitation Sector

(Rs. in Crores)

S/No. Scheme Seventh Plan (1985-90) Annual Plans (1990-92)

Eighth Plan(1992-97)-

  Outlay Actual Exp. Outlay Anti Exp. Budgetary-Support
1.         .2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
I.State/U.T. Plans     
1.Rural Water Supply (MNP) 2253.25 2571.54 1412.50 1424.89 4954.52
2. Rural Sanitation (MNP) 96.75 49.22 54.83 56.58 294.23
Total-A (1+2) 2350.00 2620.76 1467.33 1481.47 5248.75
B.U r b a n  
1. Urban Water Supply  
2. Urban Sewerage and Sewage treatment 1           
3. Urban Waste Management 2935.64 2551.04 1651.89 1623.71 5494.28
4. Urban Low-cost Sanitation 1(3008.17)*         
Total - B (1 to 4) 2935.64 2551.04 1651.89 1623.71 5494.28
Total-I (A+B) 5285.64 5171.80 3119.22 3105.18 10743.03
II.Central Plan     
1.Centrally Sponsored Accelerated 1202.52^ 1898.87^ 1181.00 1161.23 5100.00
Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) including National Drinking Water mission (1.30) (0.70)      
2. Centrally Sponsored Rural 4.20$ 16.58$ 57.59 55.59 380.00
Sanitation Programme (CRSP) (0.20) (0.14)      
Total-A (1+2) 1206.72 1915.45 1238.59 1216.82 5480.00
1.Centrally Sponsored Low-Cost Sanitation for Liberation/ Rehabilitation of Scavengers 0.00 1.82 50.50 50.50 150.00
2. Drinking Water Supply to Small Towns upto 20,000 population + 0.00 + 0.00 50.00
3.Urban Waste Disposal
(Project Management Cell)
0.11 0.07 0.08 0.081  
4. Support Programmes          
a) Public Health Engineering 4.00 1.56 1.70 1.70)  
Training Programme          
b) Research and Development including Water quality surveillance and Laboratory Services 5.00 0.41 1.70


c) Monitoring and MIS 1.00 0.02 0.50 0.50  
5. Central Assistance for UWS and Sanitation including Solid Waste Management Scheme 0.00 0.00 8.00 8.00 10.00
6.Equity to Urban Development and UWS Finance Corp./HUDCO 20.00 2.00 7.00 7.00 45.00
Total - B (1 to 6) 30.11 5.88 69.48 69.48 263.00
Total-II (A+B) 1236.83 1921.33 1308.07 1286.30 5743.00

Total (I+11)

7093.13 4427.29 4391.48 16486.03
IEBR (Urban)         225.00
Grand Total         16711.03

*As revised subsequently
# Includes Central Scheme of "UNICEF assisted rig Programme(Handling Charges)", amount for which has been shown in bracket separately. This scheme was merged with ARWSP from 1990-91.
$ Includes Central schemes of "feasibility study on Rural Sanitation", amount for which has been shown in bracket separately. This scheme was completed in the year 1986-87
+ After 1987 drought, ARWSP was extended to small towns upto 20,000 population (1981 Census). Outlay ofRs. 0.01 cr. for 1989-90 and Rs. 1.00 cr. for 1990-91 were included under ARWSP, hut no expenditure was incurred. This scheme will now be a separate Centrally Sponsored Scheme with the Ministry of Urban Development.
Schemes ' for small towns below 20,000. *

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